The literature reappraisal will analyze the research on pupil academic public presentation which concentrating on societal networking sites usage among pupil in Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor ( KUIS ) . The construct of pupil academic public presentation is cardinal to this survey in relation to a societal networking sites usage.
The variable that be tested in this survey include societal interaction, clip spend and information web based on User and Gratification Theories from Severin & A ; Taknard ( 2007 ) and Foregger ( 2008 ) old research worker. An overview of similar theories will be presented. These include Tinto ( 1993 ) Theory of Student Departure and Ajzen ( 1991 ) Theory of Planned Behavior theoretical account as they relate to the variable that be used in the survey.
Social Networking Sites provided an application that allows users to make profile, sharing the information and cognition every bit good as interacting each other. Social web seems attract a batch of attending among research worker. Several surveies examine the user sharing content in footings of their profile, exposure, videos and information ( Young et al. , 2009 ; Vasalou et al. , 2010 ) . Other explorative surveies show that societal networking sites as a platforms to back up the societal capital and societal interaction ( Burke at al. , 2010 ; Ellison et al. , 2007, 2011 ; Ginger, 2007 ; Yoder and Stutsman, 2011 ) . Some surveies examine the clip pass among internet user on societal web ( Canales at al. , 2009 ; Karpinski and Duberstein, 2009 ; Schulten, 2009 ) .
Boyd & A ; Ellison ( 2007 ) defined Social Networking Sites as:
“ Web-based services that allow persons to ( 1 ) concept a populace or semi public profile within a delimited system, ( 2 ) joint a list of other users with whom they portion a connexion and ( 3 ) position and track their list of connexions and those made by others within the system ” ( p.211 ) .
They besides province that there are a batch of societal networking sites today after 1997, which it is first twelvemonth introduced. College pupils are the most active coevals that trusting on societal networking sites to construct and keep the interaction, playing games, updating position and web log, downloading music and picture, seeking the new information and do it as a portion of their regular day-to-day lives ( Fox & A ; Madden, 2009 ; Horrigan & A ; Rainie, 2005 ; Jones & A ; Fox, 2009, Junco & A ; Cotton, 2011 ) . Other surveies shows that over 97 % of college pupil owned a computing machine, 94 % owned a cell phone and about 90 % had high velocity cyberspace entree in their place, which support the old surveies, but it gives a negative impact to their behaviour ( Junco and Cole-Avent, 2008 ) . Therefore, these support that striplings are the largest group that utilizing societal networking sites ( Greenfield, 2004 ) .
Most of the research workers agree that the utilizations and satisfaction theory are utile for internet research particularly in finding the use and communicating behaviours of cyberspace users ( Ruggiero, 2000 ; Chung & A ; Kim, 2008 ; Ebersole, 2000 ; Ko, 2000 ; LaRose & A ; Eastin, 2004 ) . The common involvement to find the internet use include clip pass, information web, amusement, societal interaction and others ( Charney & A ; Greenberg, 2002 ; Papacharisi & A ; Rubin, 2000 ) . To place the relationship between societal networking sites usage and student academic public presentation, the research worker adapted the theoretical account from Severin and Taknard ( 2007 ) and Foregger ( 2008 ) . There are 12s ( 12 ) elements in the theoretical account that include:
Utilities and upkeep
Maintain and set up old ties
Figure 2.1 Model of Social Networking Sites ( SNS ) use by Severin and Taknard ( 2007 ) and Foregger ( 2008 ) .
From 12 factors, the research worker had decided to take merely three factors that have the highest average value from the old surveies that influence the relationship between societal networking sites usage and student academic public presentation which are societal interaction, information web and clip spend. From these three factors, the research worker would wish to place and detect the factors that have a high important act uponing the relationship between societal networking sites usage and student academic public presentation in Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor ( KUIS ) .
2.1 ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
There are a batch of researches about societal networking sites in academic scenes ( Hewitt & A ; Forte, 2006 ) , but it still peculiarly little when compared to surveies of privateness, safety and psychological science good being. The consequence between societal networking sites usage and academic public presentation have been discussed in the several research that concentrating in personality traits ( Furnham et al. , 2003 ; Hardie and Tee, 2007 ; Poropat, 2009 ) .
The negative impact of societal networking sites towards pupil academic public presentation makes most of the school take enterprises with barricading entree to Social Networking Sites in computing machine at schoolroom and this show that the chief ground of this tendency centers on frights about pupil safety ( Lemke, Coughlin, Garcia, Reifsneider & A ; Baas, 2009 ) . Bernard et Al ( 2004 ) province that societal web will give either profit or negative impact of larning when compared to the acquisition manner in the schoolroom.
Study show that there is a important relationship between societal networking sites usage in footings of gender. The consequence show that females are 1.6 times more tend to utilize societal networking sites than males ( Hargittai, 2007 ) . Besides, there are several surveies that support societal networking sites uses are different in footings of gender. The different user particularly youth coevals utilizing societal networking sites in different ways ( Lenhart, Madden, Macgill & A ; Smith, 2007 ) .
There have an statement between Karpinski ( 2009 ) and Pasek et al. , ( 2009 ) surveies in relationship between the pupil attitude in societal networking sites and their academic public presentation. Karpinski ( 2009 ) find that pupils who have societal networking profile have lower degree of Collegiate Grade Point Average ( CGPAs ) which scored in the scope of 3.0 – 3.5 than pupils who are does n’t hold societal networking profile which gained CGPAs of 3.5 – 4.0. Karpinski estimate the pupil clip pass on societal networking and perusal, but these happening did non specified examine the hypotheses.
Pasek et al. , ( 2009 ) found several restriction of Karpinski survey, which including a restriction of sample of pupils, use of few control variables in the analysis and broad decision. Based on these issues, Pasek et Al. suggest extra analysis that uses a larger sample of pupil ‘s engagement, utilizing more control variables and longitudinal dataset. The consequence show that there has no important relationship between societal networking sites usage and student academic public presentation in footings of CGPA in their database.
But, there are several researches that study the societal context of larning in academic scenes and found it hold a important relationship with high quality relationship and pupil academic public presentation ( Feldman & A ; Matjasko, 2005 ; Martin & A ; Dowson, 2009 ) . A batch of surveies have been conducted to foreground the impact of societal networking sites toward user. Consequences showed that the impact of societal networking sites toward user has negative impact particularly in footings of psychological jobs ( Suhail & A ; Bargees, 2006 ) .
Kolek and Saunders ( 2008 ) proposed that there are no relationship between CGPAs and societal networking user. This survey besides supported by Pasek et Al. ( 2006 ) that proposed societal networking use is non related with low CGPAs of pupils. But, it is different laminitis by the other research worker. Linda et Al. ( 2006 ) surveies show a positive correlativity between societal networking sites usage and student academic public presentation. Ellison et Al. ( 2007 ) agree that societal networking use have capableness to minimise the psychological job among user.
Several surveies have been done sing societal networking sites usage and pupils academic public presentation. The measuring of societal networking use and pupil academic public presentation is surely unfastened to many statements. In bulk of surveies, there are shows that societal networking sites have negative important relationship toward pupil academic public presentation ( Karpinski, 2009 ; Wilson, 2009 ; Khan, 2009 ; Grabmeier, 2009 ; Banquil and Burce, 2009 ; Mattingly et al. , 2010 ; Sengupta and Chaudhuri, 2010 ) .
Other statements in societal networking sites usage toward pupil academic accomplishment province that societal networking usage gives a positive impact to academic public presentation of pupils ( Shah et al. , 2001 ; Linda et al. , 2006 ; Pasek et al. , 2006 ; Ellison et al. , 2007 ; Roblyer et al. , 2010 ) . Therefore, it is interesting to analyze the relationship between societal networking sites usage and student academic public presentation in the KUIS.
2.2 SOCIAL INTERACTION
Previous surveies show that college pupil tend to utilize societal networking sites to construct a positive relationship between their friends in campus ( Ellison, Steinfield & A ; Lampe, 2007 ) . Similarly, there is a building between direct communicating and on-line interaction, which the users utilizing societal networking sites for societal interaction with people from their day-to-day lives ( Bryant et al. , 2006 ) .
There have a high correlativity between societal networking usage and societal interaction in a sample of the college pupil that besides measures the ego regard and life satisfaction. Students who were low in ego regard, but often used societal web, had higher degree of societal interaction than their equals who were already high in ego regard. Result suggest that college pupil who have a low ego regard or life satisfaction, might profit more from societal networking usage. ( Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe, 2007 )
Other explorative surveies ( Steinfield, Ellison & A ; Lampe, 2008 ; Valenzuela, Park & A ; Kee, 2009 ) besides show the positive relationship between societal networking usage and societal interaction, and have considered college age users. There have an statement between Harman et al. , ( 2005 ) and Valkenburg et al. , ( 2006 ) surveies in relationship between the degree of ego regard and societal interaction among pupil. Harman et al. , found that pupils who have lower degree of ego esteem more tend to utilize societal networking sites for societal interaction more than those with higher ego esteem.
This is because it encourages them with preponderantly positive socialising interaction instead than face to confront communicating that they use day-to-day. Based on these findings, Valkenburg et al. , surveies has been argued that the pupil who have high ego esteem receive the most positive feedback from other online user which is about 78 % , instead than those who have lower ego regard. It could be argued, hence that pupil behaviours have possibilities in act uponing their societal interaction on societal networking sites.
Other surveies are concentrating on societal interaction among pupil and the impact of this behaviour. Roblyer et Al ( 2010 ) stated that societal networking sites provide the characteristics of on-line communicating among pupil and instructor, and they believe it will give a positive impact to these parties particularly in footings of academic scene. Based on the old surveies, the intent of present research is to happen out the relationship between societal networking sites ( SNS ) use and pupil academic public presentation in KUIS by researching the nexus between societal networking sites usage ( societal interaction, clip spend and information web ) and student academic public presentation.
2.3 INFORMATION NETWORK
Some users found that they become more organized since they create the profile on societal networking sites, by and large with respect to communicating and sharing information web ( Schulten, 2009 ) . A old survey examine the relationship between societal networking use and academic accomplishment and found that this variable have a moderated important by pupil involvement and capablenesss in the university ( Rouis, 2012 ) . Information web can be known as a portion of societal web map based on the characteristics of the societal networking sites, the user population in the on-line communities and the attitudes toward societal web itself ( Kling, 2007 ) .
Surveies show that pupils unwrap personal information on their profile and more actively to utilize privateness characteristics to restrict their profile position. Additionally, study show that nearest 66 % of adolescent are utilizing privateness characteristics to pull off who can see their profile in societal web ( Livingstone, 2008 ; Hiduja & A ; Patchin, 2008 ; Lenhart & A ; Madden, 2007 ) . But, Tufecki ( 2008 ) prove that there are no important relationship between the privateness concern and ego ordinance toward sharing information in societal networking sites. Research show that even though pupil have privateness concern and ego ordinance, it still can non impede their desire to portion information in their profile position on societal networking sites.
Information web has increase the efficiency of pupils and instructors in academic scene ( Oskousei, 2010 ) . Besides User and Gratification Theory, there are several theory that study societal interaction and information web, such as Tinto ( 1993 ) Theory of Student Departure. There are two surveies that examine the impact of societal interaction ( Douglas Olson, 2011 ) and information web ( Melinda et al. , 2008 ) toward pupil use of on-line societal networking by utilizing this theory. Doughas Olson ( 2011 ) surveies the relationship between community college pupil battle and pupil use of on-line societal networking.
Doughas province that Tinto ‘s theory has defined the relationship between on-line societal networking and pupil interaction with their friends and module in college. Result show that the theory has important relationship with pupil battle and on-line societal networking use. Melinda et Al. proposed that information web is the chief key of pupil integrating. Result province that pupil utilizing societal networking sites to sharing the information web between equals and module, and besides helped pupil as a media tool for their successful grade completion. Almost 84 % of pupils who are utilizing information web were found as integrated into the college.
The Tinto ‘s ( 1993 ) Theory of Student Departure theoretical account is depicted in Figure 2.2, as below:
Research has shown that female ‘s pupils are more likely to portion information and cognition about their day-to-day lives instead than males ( Merten & A ; Williams, 2009 ) . In a recent survey, it was shown that about 55 % of females shared their personal information in the societal networking sites and merely 15 % of males shared their personal information in their profiles ( Merten & A ; Williams, 2009 ) . On the other side of the issue, the both group are normally use societal networking sites as a platform to updating their current academic information, such as assignment work and presentation ( Alexander & A ; Salas, 2008 ) . Therefore, it is interesting to analyze the relationship between information webs on societal networking usage toward pupil public presentation in KUIS.
2.4 TIME SPEND
While there have been province advantages associated with societal web usage, there are besides some concern about its peculiarly frequent usage ( Lenhart & A ; Madden, 2007 ; Livingstone, 2008 ) . Internet user spends more clip in societal networking sites instead than web logs and electronic mail ( Nielsen Online, 2009 ) . Schulten ( 2009 ) study the relationship between times spend and academic public presentation among pupil. The consequence shows that the long times spent on societal networking sites will diminish the degree of pupil ‘s academic public presentation and their classs. Student noted that they spend an norm of 30 – 35 proceedingss per twenty-four hours on societal networking sites. Some of pupil note that they can non discontinue from sing the societal web even thought at that place hold a restriction of surfing such as clip consuming and web distraction ( Facebook, 2011 and Adan, 2011 ) .
Students, who more tend to pass clip on the societal networking sites, should be distracted in related assignment work during the long hours spent on societal web. They like to portion the information and cognition, take part in forum, treatments and chew the fating, uploading the picture and exposure and more tend to pass long hours in chew the fating with their friend and look intoing their profiles and updates from computing machine and cell phones even while fixing their assignment work, which will interferes their advancement of work. But, some of surveies show that the user ‘s engagement and behaviour in societal networking sites are depending on their personalities and cultural background. Researcher found that there has a different consequence in user attitude and engagement toward societal networking sites based on their age, gender, and personality traits. ( Hofstede, 2005 and Nazir et al. , 2009 )
Besides User and Gratification Theory, there are several theory that survey this variable ( clip spend ) , such as Theory of Planned Behavior ( TPB ) . Baker, Rosland K. and White, Katherine M. ( 2010 ) found that Theory Planned Behavior theoretical account ( TPB ) have high important of cogency in proving the pupil battle and clip spend of societal networking sites. The entire participants are 160 pupils that have completed steps measuring the theoretical account. Consequences are collected after one hebdomad, and shows there have positive relationship between pupil battle and times spend of societal networking. Researcher found that pupil who have high favourable attitude toward battle more tend to utilize societal networking sites, and more confident in term of use and keep the societal interaction among equals. Theory of Planned Behavior is the good known theoretical account that be widely used by the research worker to place the of import forecasters of person ‘s behaviour ( Ajzen, 1991 ) .
The Theory of Planned Behavior theoretical account is depicted in Figure 2.3, as below:
Extraversion, neurotic and agreeable pupil are more likely to pass clip in pull offing the forum, treatment and group, assisting their friends and steering them in assignment work on societal networking sites. There are several surveies that examine the user attitude in societal networking sites towards this type of pupils. They found that those extraversion pupils are the most actively and passing more clip in societal web. Their attitude can be defined as sociableness, adventuresome, dominant and ambitious toward societal web. Neurotic pupil more tend to utilize the societal networking sites harmonizing to their emotion. Their attitude is more sensitive, which makes them less imposed to analyze particularly when they are non satisfied.
Neurotic pupil more tend to construct and keep their web relationship as the key of their satisfaction. They more likely specified their web content and looking for a new contact if have a opportunity. Neurotic pupil have a high capableness to pass more clip in societal networking sites when they are stress and unsated. Finally, the agreeable pupil is courtesy, which is they will non worsen the invitation to go a friends or fall in a group and forum. Their attitudes are sort, honest and unfastened minded. Agreeable pupil normally will take and pull off the treatment in group between their friend and other users and will pass clip to assisting their friends ( Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007 ; Tabak et al. , 2009 ; Clark and Schroth, 2010 ; Roccas et al. , 2008 ; Propat, 2009 ) .
Janco and Mastrodicasa ( 2007 ) believes that the most challenge that faced by academic adviser are interacting with pupils through societal networking sites in which they spend so much clip. They believe older coevals can non foretell every bit fast as young person in engineering promotion. Besides, chat suites seem have a possible to give a bad influence in term of behaviour because it normally public and unmonitored infinite which make people can speak synchronously. Surveies show that pupil pass more clip in chew the fating with new friend and other alien. These give a high potency of unwanted interaction in societal networking sites ( Peter, Valkenburg, and Schouten, 2006 ) . Martin ( 2009 ) found that there is no correlativity between times spends of societal networking sites toward pupil academic public presentation make this variable more favourable to be tested in this survey.
Students reported have subtracting clip from their other day-to-day activities, such as assignment work and face to confront communicating to pass more clip on societal networking sites ( Livingstone ; Rapid Press Release, 2008 ; Sharif & A ; Sargent, 2006 ; Vandewater, Shim & A ; Caplovitz, 2004 ) . Microsoft Digital Advertising Solutions ( 2007 ) province that the norm of users visit to societal networking sites are 2.4 per user per use twenty-four hours, and this support that the often use of societal web a twenty-four hours reflects the survey ‘s of mark behaviour of societal networking usage within the college pupil user.
There is important relationship between societal networking use and widening of the user utilizing these sites ( Nielsen Company, 2009 ) . But, there have a different consequence sing the societal networking engagement on pupil academic public presentation across gender lines as to which group pass more clip on these sites ( Lin & A ; Subrahmanyam, 2007 ) . Consequences are assorted across gender lines whether females more systematically used societal networking sites instead than males ( Hargittai & A ; Hsieh, 2010 ; Mix, 2010 ) or males have been more on-line than females ( Lin & A ; Subrahmanyam, 2007 ) .
Besides, there are besides an every bit divided of the clip spend between females and males ( Bonds-Raacke & A ; Raacke, 2008 ) . Further, it was expected that gender would significantly add to efficacy in the frequent societal networking sites use. Therefore, the current survey sought to research the relationship between times spend on societal networking usage toward pupil public presentation in KUIS.
This literature reappraisal is elaborated about the factors that act uponing the societal networking sites ( SNS ) use towards pupil academic public presentation. The debut is explained about the societal networking sites ( SNS ) in academic scene. After that, it is continued with the amplification of dependant variable which is student academic public presentation. There are three independent variables that contributed together for this survey, which include societal interaction, information web and clip spend. All of these variables are elaborated specifically on the societal networking sites ( SNS ) use among college pupil. The supportive theory is good defined and the demographic factors which are gender and CGPAs are being explained in each of the variable. Based on the treatment in this chapter, the chief variables are listed below:
Demographic factors such as gender and CGPAs.
Academic public presentation
These identified chief variables that can act upon the societal networking sites ( SNS ) use towards pupil academic public presentation will be used in the following Chapter 3 to develop a theoretical model of this research. It will go the footing of this survey to understand the factors that influence the societal networking sites ( SNS ) use toward pupil academic public presentation in Kolej Universiti Islam Anatarabangsa Selangor ( KUIS ) .