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Table of Contents I- Introduction 1. Background 1. 1 Definition of Hanoi’s temporary food markets and their overall importance in Hanoinians’ life, Page 4 1. 2 Explanations for the need of dissolving temporary food markets in Hanoi, Page 5 1. 3 The policies of temporary food market’s dissolution (TMD) and their effects, Page 9 2. Purpose and Research Question, Page 10 3. Research method, Page 10 II- Findings 1. Demand for shopping in temporary food markets of Hanoinians, Page 11 1. 1 Income, Page 12 1. 2 Habits, Page 12 1. 3 Lifestyle, Page 13 . 4 Convenience from temporary markets, Page 13 2. The local Government’s implement and supporting policies 2. 1 Obstacles in acquiring other marketplaces, Page 14 2. 2 Obstacles in assisting new jobs for sellers, Page 15 2. 3 Obstacles in municipal executive department, Page 15 3. Sellers in temporary markets and their attitudes to the policies. 3. 1 Portrait of the sellers in temporary markets, Page 16 3. 2 The sellers’ attitudes and reactions to the Government’s polices of TMD, Page 17 4. Alternatives for temporary markets 4. 1 Permanent markets, Page 18 4. Convenience stores/ Food stores, Page 20 4. 3 Supermarkets, Page 21 III. Conclusion, Page 24 IV. Appendix, Page 25 V. Bibliography, Page 27 Introduction 1. Background 1. 1 Definition of temporary food markets and the overall importance of them in Hanoinians’ life No one knows when markets began to exist, yet it should be from a very long time, as people started to have demands for goods exchange. In some ancient pictures, we may realize that market, at the early age of the development, consisted of about 5-10 sellers, who put their products on the ground to sell.

Along with the development of society, markets became larger with more sellers and more products. At that time, people started to classify markets for food, clothes or merchandise and assigned it to different areas. In a food market, people sell all kinds of fresh food. At first, each seller[1] occupied their own places in the market. There was no management or security for them. Gradually, Government started to build walls or buildings to gather all the sellers, establish markets’ management, lease stalls and collect taxes.

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In developed countries, open-space food markets are almost replaced by supermarkets and convenience stores. However, in Vietnam, open-space food markets still play an important role in people’s life. ‘Market’ is a familiar term to all Vietnamese. In Hanoi, the 1000 year-old capital of Vietnam, there is a thick net of markets, as more and more people concentrate to live here. Especially, there are many big centre markets, which are in charge of trading goods for the whole Northern plain or the whole Vietnam. In general, yet, there are two kinds of food markets in Hanoi, which are permanent food markets and temporary food markets.

For short using, we will call them permanent markets and temporary markets through out the text. Permanent markets are legal markets, which have walls surrounded, might be semi-open spaced, and have been existed for dozens of years. In these markets, there are always markets’ managers, who are in charge of managing the markets’ activities and control the quality standard of food in the markets. Meanwhile, temporary markets are illegal open spaced markets, built up freely by a group of people- mostly vendors- and exist for short time.

These markets are established due to the demand for food shopping of people in a residential area, such as an industrial zone or a ward; hence, it may last for a few months (markets on pavements) to even more than 10 years (markets on small streets). No one is in charge of the food quality in here. In Hanoi people’s life, ‘market’ is a familiar term. People in here don’t often distinguish the definition of permanent markets and temporary markets, as permanent markets were originally temporary markets in the past.

With 161 temporary markets in the city[2], most of people in Hanoi have at least one temporary market in their neighborhood. These markets have two functions: ? It’s the place where they can trade for food everyday ? It’s the place for people to communicate with their neighbors, chit chat for a while about their lives or interests. Nowadays, although many supermarkets and convenience stores are growing up, but people in Hanoi still keep the habit of ‘going to markets” – temporary markets. 1. 2 Explanations for the need of dissolving temporary food markets in Hanoi.

Needless to say, from the first section, temporary food markets have been so meaningful to Hanoinians. However, when the standard of livings is upgraded along with the development of economy and society, temporary food markets have shown many limits to participants of food markets. Their incontinences, including low hygiene, uncontrollability, pollution, block – the – traffic, tax loss, negatively affecting landscape, are becoming our priority concerns. 1. 2. 1 Low hygiene: The first and foremost problem of temporary food markets is hygiene. On a recent article, Mr.

Duong Van Hoa – head of Vinh Hung precinct claimed that Vinh Hung temporary food market was under hygiene standard for many years but until now, the situation has unchanged. The story of Mr. Hoa is familiar in many other parts of Hanoi. As sellers in temporary markets have small capital, they often import goods from ambiguous sources with low prices and there’s no one who can certify the quality of the inputs. Some of them even put the food on the ground, while the hygiene standard requires that the distance between foods and ground is at least 1m. Figure 1. 2. 1: common sight in a temporary market in Hanoi [pic]

Source: anninhthudo. com. vn Moreover, due to the spontaneity, sellers in temporary markets can set up their markets everywhere, such as on a large pavement, on a small street or near a polluted river. All of them drop their garbage right where they trade, which dirties the fresh food sold nearby and causes bad smell for the surroundings. To make the matter worse, in 2007, temporary food market contributed much to the cholera epidemic. After 5-11-2007, Ministry of Public health enacted new regulation prohibiting selling “mam tom”- the suspicious food causing cholera, but “mam tom” was still easily found in temporary food markets.

Who could make sure that cholera bacterium from “mam tom” would not spread to other food in the market? 1. 2. 2 Uncontrollability Almost all of the temporary food markets in Hanoi are out of control due to some complicated characteristics of temporary food market and a weak Hanoi administration control. As defined above, temporary food markets can be set up easily by only a group of 5-10 vendors, hence, no one knows where those sellers in temporary markets come from or whether they have previous convictions or not, which makes the security of surroundings being loosely.

According to the statistics of the local police, the ratio of pickpockets is higher in the areas which have many temporary markets such as Bach Dang ward (near Nguyen Cao, Luong Yen, Bach Dang temporary food market), etc. 1. 2. 3 Environment pollution There is a fun fact that when we interviewed people who like shopping in temporary markets that whether they wanted to have a temporary markets right in front of their doors. The answers are all “no” due to the pollution. We can divide environment pollution of temporary markets into 4 categories: air pollution, rubbish pollution, water pollution, sound pollution. Air pollution: as mentioned above, the smell is a big problem of temporary markets. Moreover, smoke or exhaust in here is not filtered or filtered improperly due to the lack of equipments. ? Rubbish pollution: most of the sellers in temporary food market are poor people (their income is about 500. 000- 2. 5 million vnd/month) and have a low level of education (usually elementary level). Hence, their concern is the benefit in short term instead of in long term. Using nylon baggage is one example, the seller think it is cheap and convenient without knowing the really bad effect of nylon to our environment.

Meanwhile, supermarkets like Metro or BigC start having customers use recycle bags. They might be a little more expensive but they are friendly with the environment and you can reuse those bags many times. ? Water pollution (figure1. 2. 3): pouring rubbish into rivers is the sight which we see everyday. It is a common problem not only in temporary food markets but any places near river or pond. [pic] ? Sound pollution: due to the open space of temporary markets, all the sounds of trading, bargaining, processing and motors make up an annoying noise for all people living around. 1. 2. 4 Block the traffic:

The problem of “block the traffic” happens on narrow streets which has temporary markets especially in the late afternoon, when people come back from the offices buying food for dinners. To be specific, we illustrate the most typical example: the temporary food markets on Long Bien bridge. Long Bien bridge’s sidewalk have 0. 4m in width but, in fact, this area has been taken by sellers in the temporary food market on it and, thus, walkers have to walk on the road which is very dangerous. Specially, on 5 pm everyday, there is always traffic jam on bridge since many people on the way home pull over to buy something.

The other temporary food markets cause the same problem. They usually locate in small roads, or alleys which many people go through, such as Yen Hoa precinct, Lac Long Quan street, Bach Dang street, Phu Yen street,etc. [pic] 1. 2. 5 Tax loss: As mentioned above, sellers in temporary markets can come from anywhere and can move to other places any time so the Administration finds it really difficult to collect taxes. Meanwhile, with a total of 161 temporary markets in Hanoi, the amount of tax loss can be very big. 1. 2. 6 Negatively affecting landscape

In the past, temporary markets were a beautiful cultural feature of Hanoi. However, with their present image, which is dirty, untidy, slovenly, temporary markets make Hanoi- the capital of Vietnam and the city of peace as well- become ugly and unacceptable in foreigners’ eyes. In addition, temporary markets also destroy the beautiful-looking of new residential quarter, such as My Dinh, Phap Van, Vinh Phuc, etc. Knowing that there’s few food shopping centers around new residential buidings, a group of vendors garthered on the large new pavements and sell food.

As mentioned above, the collolary of this will be noise, litters and bad smell, which will deteriorate the buildings sooner or later. All things considered, even if temporary markets are so convenient to many people’s life in Hanoi, the dissolution of them in the future is necessary and should be gradually executed from now on. 1. 3 The policies of temporary food market’s dissolution and their results. Realizing the bad effects of temporary food markets, Hanoi Government has made many endeavors to gradually erase the image of those markets since 2006.

Specifically, On 26th March, 2007: eliminate 35 temporary food markets including ones on Long Bien bridge. On 20th Jun, 2007: eliminate Hang Be temporary food markets. On 2nd November, 2007: eliminate 31 temporary food markets in Hoan Kiem, Tay Ho, Thanh Xuan district. On 14th January, 2008: eliminate all temporary food markets in Hanoi city. On 16th April, 2009: eliminate all temporary food markets in Hanoi city. You might notice that there are two similar policies of “eliminate all temporary markets in Hanoi” in 2008 and 2009. The reason for this is only because the first policy in 2008 had not done, so in 2009 they had to make a new one.

In fact, until now, 20/10/2009, none of these policies has been executed and fulfilled completely. If you wander around Hanoi, you can still see many temporary food markets like such as Hang Be market (only a part of it has been dissolved), Long Bien market, Thanh Bao market, Dinh Cong market, Bai An market, Thuy Khue market, etc. According to our group’s investigation, only 50% out of 161 temporary markets are dispersed in Hanoi while some new temporary markets are beginning to develop. To make it clearer, we will consider the example of Nguyen Cao temporary markets, which had been existed for nearly 10 years.

In 2007, this market were dissolved successfully as the police were so determined and the local Government arranged sellers to move into small lanes around Nguyen Cao street, so that they can continue to run their business. However, this situation didn’t last long. Realizing that moving into small lanes decreased their income, a few sellers decided to move back to the pavement of Nguyen Cao street. With some commissions to the local Administration, these sellers could “hire” a seat on the new pavement, by which they can sell more products as people on the way home often pull over to a side to buy food for dinner.

Of course, the corollary is that other sellers also flow over to the street to sell their products, which makes the street crowded and stuck in the rush-hour. All in all, apart from the success of dissolving some temporary markets, the local Government still has to exert a lot more to eliminate the other 81 temporary markets and prevent another new one from growing. 2. Purpose and Research Question This paper aims at informing public about the reasons of inadequate practice of municipal authority’s policies toward the presence of temporary food market in Hanoi.

Regarding with the fast rate of urbanization as well as the modern food supplies system, Hanoi is attempting to conduct the policies to ban the operations of temporary food market in the urban areas. However, these policies appear to be ineffective due to many reasons. In this piece of writing, our group would definitely help you answer the following question: Why is the local government’s practice of dissolving temporary markets in Hanoi tardy? 3. Research Method 3. 1 Data collection Data collection consists of both primary and secondary sources. 3. 1. 1 Primary source: Survey: create a question list on Google and spread it through emails or in papers at building blocks. The questionnaire is meant for housewives and consists of 9 questions. The first 4 questions help to classify objects (age, income, etc. ); Question 5,6,8 ask for the shopping habits; the other two questions ask for the assessment of customers about food quality and market criteria. – Market observation: choose 3 temporary markets, 3 supermatkets and 3 convenience stores to analyze the difference in prices. The chosen products are some common meat and vegetable.

Furthermore, 2 group members are assigned to observe some particular temporary markets and take pictures. – Interview: + Interview customers: choose 5 customers from 5 different districts of Hanoi, ask them about their shopping market places and their attitude towards the moving of temporary markets into small lanes or alleys. + Interview sellers: talk to 2 sellers in Nguyen Cao temporary food market about their lives. 3. 1. 2 Secondary source – Internet: looking for the policies of the Government about TMD. – Search about statistics of income, population distribution of Hanoi from Government’s website. . 2 Data Analysis – Use Excel to process data from survey. The result is shown in the Appendix. – Choose 4 factors which have potential to affect the tardiness of executing TMD policy the most: + Demand for shopping in temporary food markets; + Government’s obstacles; + Sellers’ attitudes; + Alternatives for temporary food markets. Use result achieved from the survey to support ideas when analyzing each factor. Findings 1. Demand for shopping in temporary food markets of Hanoinians Under the economic view, the demand usually comes first and creates the supply.

To fully understand why temporary food markets keeps on developing regardless of Government policies, we should take a look at the demand of Hanoinians for those markets. In order to see what kind of market Hanoinians often choose for food shopping, we did a survey of a population of 120 people (see Appendix). Among them, 56 people choose temporary markets, accounting for 48% (shown in Table 1. 1). It’s compatible with the research done by FTA, which claimed that 56% of the consumers in Hanoi like shopping for food in temporary markets, while the corresponding percentage in Ho Chi Minh city is 26%.

The problem of different income level of the two cities is a plausible cause, yet to precisely explain for the choice of about a half of the customers for temporary market, we should also analyze the habits and lifestyle of Hanoinians and the convenience from temporary markets. Table 1. 1 1. Income 1. 1 Income According to Ministry of Finance, the average yearly income of people in Hanoi is 2,100USD in 2008, which is about 3 million VND per month. We assume that they use 1. 500. 000VND for food every month or about 50,000 VND for food (including breakfast) everyday.

With that level of income, shopping in supermarkets for food is out of reach. Consequently, shopping in temporary markets, which offers them low prices and bargaining, is their priority choice. 1. 2 Habits There are two habits that make most of Hanoinians keep on shopping in temporary markets, which are shopping frequently and shopping in the early morning. To begin with, we will talk about the habit of shopping in the early morning of Hanoinians. According to our survey result, 49% of people choose to shop or food before they go to work. In their opinion, shopping in that time can help them buy fresh food, keep fit by walking (most of them walk to the markets as the markets are in their neighbors), and save time. For those who have this habit, a supermarket is absolutely not a right choice since they always open after 9a. m. Besides, Hanoi shoppers also have the habit of shopping everyday. Even though life is getting busier in this modern time, many people still prefer shopping for food once every 2 days instead of once every week.

Their reason is that carrying food for the whole week at once is so cumbersome, while most of the citizens use motorbikes as their private means of transport instead of cars. As a result, temporary markets, along with permanent markets, is an appropriate choice for them since driving to supermarket everyday will waste them time and quite an amount of money for gas fee. 1. 3 Lifestyles The population of Hanoi in 2007 is approximately 3. 4 million people[3], among which only 20% are original Hanoinians, 80% are immigrants from other provinces and surroundings.

This majority, coming from the poor countryside, like shopping in temporary markets, so that they can meet and gossip together. Those people think that shopping in supermarkets is luxurious and unnecessary. For the 15% of original Hanoinians, their interest for temporary markets originates from their lifestyle which was affected during the period of subsidy. The first lifestyle is hustling, which is mentioned so many times by foreigners. People in Hanoi, and most other parts of Vietnam, are impatient for standing in queue, which is popular when making payment in supermarkets or convenience stores.

The second lifestyle is saving. There’s also a joke that “Hanoi people who can earn 10 million only spend 1 million vnd, Sai Gon people who can earn 10 million spend 11 million vnd”. Even though they call it a joke, yet it’s not wrong at all. Saving is a typical quality of Hanoinians. If they can buy the same thing in a temporary market with lower price, then why do they have to buy it in a supermarket? 1. 4 Convenience from temporary markets To assess the convenience of temporary food markets, we would consider criteria in question 7 of the survey, which is food quality, price, convenient position and food diversity. ? Food quality: 64% of the responsers believe that you can buy good quality food if you have the knowledge of food and take it into consideration. ? Price: as the sellers in temporary markets pay no tax, and the cost for a position in temporary market is low (2000vnd per day for vendors), the price of food is more than 10% cheaper than those in convenience stores and supermarkets. ? Food diversity: pork bologna, salted vegetable, fresh noodle can never be found in supermarkets. Convenience: although convenience ranks the third important criterion out of four, but it’s the main reason why housewives choose to buy food in temporary markets. Unless your house is near a supermarket or convenience store, it would be much faster if you shop in temporary markets, as you can, at the same time, driving your motorbike, looking for the food you want and paying for the sellers. 2- The local Government’s implement and supporting policies In the previous part, it is clearly seen that the continuous demand of Hanoinians is the primary reason for the popularity of temporary food market.

Nevertheless, the sluggishness and irresponsibility of Hanoi authority in enforcing the policies holds no less important role in the existence of such markets. 2. 1 Obstacles in acquiring other marketplaces There is a fact that Hanoi Government is ineffective in expanding the city’s market or finding another market to replace the former temporary food markets. Although the city’s Government has promised to rehearse some actions assisting the policies to support the sellers to find new places to continue their trading activities, the Executive department finds it very difficult to relocate these sellers centrically.

Several issues are discussed, such as infrastructure quality, financial capacity or not-large-enough lands or roads. The first and foremost solution suggested is moving these temporary food markets into small alleys. However, this idea raises a big disapproval from the surroundings. The citizens certainly disagree with the idea that there is a market in front of their house as it creates confusion and dirt such as rubbish or smell. Another way to find place is to move these sellers into permanent markets, which also mean the area of current sellers in permanent markets will be smaller.

Obviously, no sellers want to share their places with others. Furthermore, even if they agree to share, 37 permanent markets cannot supply enough places for sellers from 161 temporary markets. Consequently, only sellers who have residence’s licenses are able to get that places, the other will find no places to go. Indeed, the Administration of Hanoi is stuck in finding new markets for all sellers after the dispersion of all temporary markets. 2. 2 Obstacles in assisting new jobs for sellers

Not only can the city’s Administration not supply new marketplaces, but they also appear to be unable to provide other jobs for the sellers in these temporary food market. It cannot be denied that the temporary food markets provide a significant employment, both directly and indirectly, so the enforcement of the law would definitely eliminating the jobs of many people, especially the poor sector. As a result, for the sake of effectively erasing the temporary markets, the government must provide various policies to support the job-training and job-finding for these unemployed workers.

In reality, the government has issued many loans programs for the poor. According to the National Targeted Programs for Poverty Reduction for the 2006-2010, the sellers in temporary food markets may file to the authority to receive loans from the Government. However, there still exist many problems. The first difficulty regarding with these policies is the fact that most of the sellers are the immigrants who have no identifications or residences’ license to grant loans. Also, they need to have plans and clear objectives to get money from Government (microenterprise program).

More importantly, the responsible agencies appear to be reluctant and inactive in supporting these sellers to grant loans. It is often cumbersome and timely to meet and work with the officials. As a result, the sellers keep carrying on their trading in temporary food markets. What’s more, the city also states that the sellers who are poor and have residence’s license can take the chance to learn or be trained new skills to take up another jobs. However, the training programs are bound to not practical and applicable. After being trained, the learners find it difficult to apply for a new job.

By and large, both the training and lending programs for the sellers are not as effective as expected. 2. 3 Obstacles from Municipal Executive department Beside the above difficulties, the city also faces with the flaws in management machine which create the futility in enforcing the law. First of all, we want to mention to the inconsistency and responsibility of executive staff, who are normally local police. Normally, eliminating a temporary market will take only a week, but preventing it from growing again is so much difficult.

In the first month after the ban of temporary markets, the police will go on patrol very frequently. Yet after that month, they don’t often go on a patrol anymore or they just do it in a few fixed times in a day, which give sellers chances to grow the market again. Moreover, as police, when they notice there’s a potential temporary market in their area, they should stop it immediately. However, they just ignore it as they are not assigned to disperse it. The second flaw is the lack of co-ordination between the police.

As usual, each ward has its own police, who in charge of disbanding temporary markets in the area of its ward. It means they have no power in other wards. To take advantage of it, the vendors, when being chased in one ward, will hide run to nearby streets, which belongs to other wards, and come back to their seat when the police have already gone. Had the police of all the wards coordinated, the temporary markets would have had no places to set up. Lastly, the corruption is another reason for the ineffective enforcement of the law.

Paying bribes to the police to continue to trade unlawfully becomes very common. The police, who are mostly from the low income level section, find it uneconomically when eliminating vendors and temporary markets since the sellers lose their income sources and their families also lose an amount of money. In conclusion, not only the ineffectiveness in finding a new marketplace and providing other jobs for sellers but also the ineffectiveness in internal operation of the city authority is the main reason why the government find it difficult to eliminating all the temporary food markets. – Sellers in temporary markets and their attitudes to the policies In the previous section, we mentioned a lot about the sellers’ opposed attitude to the Government’s policies of temporary market dissolution (TMD). Why are they so stubborn? This section is meant to help you have an overview of their lives and the reasons why they keep on sticking to their food stalls. 3. 1 Portrait of the sellers in temporary markets According to the most recent statistics of Labor and Social Welfare Service, there are about 24,000 people who lean on temporary markets to earn for livings.

Among them, only 40% have permanent accommodations in Hanoi, more than 60% are from the countryside. Firstly, we look at the portrait of the 40% sellers. These people have an average level of income, which is about 2. 5 – 5. 5 million VND per month. The products they often sell are pork, beef and chicken, which require relatively high capital. Although they all have their own houses, but they prefer selling in temporary markets because it will attract more buyers. Next, we want to mention more about the other 60% sellers.

Those rural people might from Hanoi’s surroundings, such as Ha Dong or Son Tay, or they can be from a very far distance such as Thanh Hoa or Thai Binh. The reason why they have to leave their hometowns to go to Hanoi is variable, but on the whole there is only one reason that they are so poor. Some of them own farms, while the others don’t even have farms or any other jobs. To make more money, they go to Hanoi, find a place in temporary markets and sell vegetables or fruits with a bamboo frame, which require less capital than selling meat.

Their accommodations are narrow dirty rooms near the Red River, in which 12 people will share an area of 12m2 and each will pay 7000VND for one night. Although the standard of livings here is even lower than in their hometown, but it helps them save some money for their families. Normally, if their business runs well, they can send about 150,000-500,000 to their families. In a nutshell, no matter where the sellers are from, contemporary markets play a very important role in their lives. Consequently, when the Government decided to eliminate all the temporary markets, their lives seemed to be in danger. . 2 The sellers’ attitudes and reactions to the Government’s polices of TMD As for the sellers who live permanently in Hanoi, the decision of eliminating temporary markets really disappoints them. Although the local Government promises to find them other places in permanent markets, but normally, the fee is higher than the old place and their location in the new market is not as good as before due to their later comings. In this case, many of them choose to sell food in their own houses, which is near their old markets so that their loyal customers can find it easily.

For the rural sellers, the problem is even more complicated. These people don’t have houses in Hanoi and do not receive any help from the local Government in finding new places to sell food either. All they get is the encouragement from the local Government to come back to their hometown or to join vocational schools and find other jobs. However, there is a fact that both of the ways are impossible for them. Mr. Hai (41 year-old, from Thanh Hoa),selling vegetable at Long Bien temporary market, said that: “If I come back to my home town, my wife and 2 children will have nothing to eat.

We don’t have farm any more, the local Government took it back to build a new factory”. When we ask him why he doesn’t apply for a job in that factory, he said that “I’m too old to start learning in vocational schools and being employed in factories”. Mrs Thanh (35 year-old, also from Thanh Hoa), selling vegetable every afternoon on Tran Xuan Soan Street said: “My hometown is very poor. Few pieces of land cannot help me earn enough money for my children to eat, not to mention their school fees.

Leaving my children for my parents, my husband and I come here (Hanoi) hoping to save some money to raise the children. Sometimes, we miss them so much but hesitate to visit because of the transportation fee”. The situation of these two people is very common. No one wants to separate their own family. If they have to, then it’s the only way for them to live. Eliminating temporary markets prevents them from making money, while they are too old to work for factories or too poor to hire an official stall to run their business. That’s the reason why they hold on to their bamboo frames.

If they are asked to move, then they will move to another places and grow their own food temporary markets in small lanes or small streets. 4. Alternatives for temporary markets Until now, we have presented three main factors that make the process of carrying out the policy of TMD tardy. The last factor, also the most important factor, is the alternatives for temporary markets, which are permanent markets, convenient stores/grocery stores and supermarkets. Let’s see whether these markets can cover the advantages and improve the disadvantage of temporary markets. 1. Permanent markets

Permanent markets are the markets that have borders, solid walls surrounded; there might be some open areas with tents but they are distributed clearly and tightly. The sellers will have pay monthly fee of about 5-10 million VND to own a stall here. Most of them have existed for a very long time and are kept in mind by many Hanoinian’s generations, such as Hom market, Mo market, Dong Xuan market, etc. From customers’ point of view, permanent markets can cover all the advantages of temporary markets. Except for a bit higher prices, they also have fresh food, food diversity, convenience (you don’t have to leave your vehicle in parking areas).

According to our survey’s result, when being asked to assess the quality of food in each market types, 13% of the customers think that food in permanent markets is not reliable, 80% think that you have to consider when buying and 7% believe it is good, whereas this number in temporary markets is correspondingly 34%, 64% and 2% (see Table 4. 1). This proclaims that more people trust in the quality of food from permanent markets than from temporary markets. While 74% customers believe that food quality is the most important criteria when shopping, permanent markets is perfect alternative for temporary markets. Table 4. 1 [pic]

So, why people keep on shopping in temporary market? According to Bureau of Trading Promoting, there are about 37 permanent markets in Hanoi. On average, each of permanent markets can serve for a population of 10. 000-25. 000. If we multiply it with the number of markets, then 37 permanent markets can serve for a maximum of 925. 000 people. Meanwhile, according to population report of 2007, Hanoi has about 3,4 million people. Clearly, the permanent markets in Hanoi can satisfy only one third of the demand. [pic] Recently, the Government has built a plan of rebuilding all the permanent market to convert them into trading centers.

The efficiency of this plan is uncertain but there’s a truth that the price in those centers will higher than the price of food in temporary markets, which drive people with low level of income to turn to temporary markets. 2. Convenience stores/food stores: The concept of convenient stores or food stores is quite familiar with all people in Hanoi these days. Convenient stores are small stores with an average area of 20-40 m2, in which people sell daily products. Apart from toothbrushes, detergent, etc. , they also include canned food, fresh food or cooked food with a certificate of good quality provided by the local Government.

Meanwhile, food stores are smaller and concentrate on food only, which are also guaranteed by appropriate authorities. Since the characteristic of food and food price in the two kinds of store are rather similar, we use term “convenience store” for both in the next section. First of all, we will consider if convenience stores can take the place of temporary markets. At the present, there’re more than 40 convenience stores in Hanoi, in which 25 stores are under trade mark of Hapromart, the other are owned privately. Hapromart was established by Trading Service in 2002.

Since 2003, Hapromart has started building a chain of convenience stores, food stores and minimarts to serve for daily demand of Hanoinians. It’s hoped that this chain can replace temporary markets in the near future. However, until now the role of this chain is ambiguous. People don’t consider it as an alternative but a supplement for temporary markets. What is the reason? + The first answer is the number of stores in this chain. On average, one convenience store of 25m2 can serve for about 500 customers, which means the number of Hapromart are able to serve for less than 0. % of Hanoi citizen! + Secondly, the price in these stores is higher than in temporary market. Look at the Table 4. 2, you can make a comparison between the prices of some common products in temporary markets, convenience stores and supermarkets. Table 4. 2 | |Pork |Beef |Cabbage |Potato |Tomato | |Supermarket |83. 000d/kg |178. 000d/kg |8. 600/kg |9. 800d/kg |13. 000d/kg | |Convenience Store |82. 00d/kg |168. 000d/kg |8. 000/kg |9. 600d/kg |12. 000d/kg | |Temporary market |70. 000d/kg |130. 000d/kg |8. 000d/kg |7. 000d/kg |11. 500d/kg | * These prices were taken on 18th Oct, 2009. From this table, we can see that the prices of food in convenience stores is approximately the same as the prices of food in supermarkets and about 10-30% (tax including) more expensive than in temporary markets, which is not suitable for people from the low level income section. Lastly, there is a question mark for the food quality in convenience stores. With that level of price, housewives will expect that the quality in convenience stores will also be as good as in the supermarkets. However, on 23rd February 2008, one customer shopped in Hapro convenience store in the evening noticing that on one packet of pork, they wrote down the date of production 24th Feb 08. Realizing that there was a cheat here, the customer informed it to appropriate authorities.

This scandal was then public, the employee who cheated was fired but the credibility of Hapro was also declined more or less. Again look at Table 4. 1, percentage of people claim that food quality in convenience stores is good account for half of this in supermarkets. With all those characteristics, most people choose to buy food in convenience stores only when the food they want to buy run out in the temporary markets. This conclusion matches our survey result, in which only two out of 120 people choose convenience stores as their frequent laces for food shopping. 3. Supermarkets A supermarket is a self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise, organized into departments. The supermarket typically comprises meat, fresh produced, dairy, and baked goods departments along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various nonfood items such as household cleaners, pharmacy products, and pet supplies. In developed countries, supermarket replaced informal markets many years ago. In Hanoi, the first supermarket appeared in 1997.

After 12 years, the number of supermarkets has increased to nearly 50, among which 3 of them (2 Metro and 1 Big C) are hypermarkets with total area for each going up to 24. 000 m2. Most of the other markets belong to 4 trademark lines including Hapromart (15), Fivimart (12), Intimex (5), Citimart (3). All those four companies are having a plan to broaden their supermarket chain to satisfy the increasing shopping demand in supermarkets of Hanoinians, which goes up from 15% in 2005 to 24% in 2007 and is expected to be 37% in 2010[4].

Returning to the question if supermarkets can replace the role of temporary markets, we will analyze 4 requirements that a housewife expect from the market: good quality, competitive price, food diversity, convenience. + Good quality: all the supermarkets have a certificate that verifies the quality of food, all that a customer has to do is to read the expiry date on the stamps and choose the products that he/she wants. For this advantage, many people from high level income section choose supermarkets as their frequent food markets.

From Table 4. 1, we can also see that people assess the food quality in supermarkets the best. + Competitive prices: again, look at the table 4. 2. Although the prices of food in supermarkets is higher than in temporary markets, but they are almost the same as in convenience stores, while, as stated above, the quality of food is more guaranteed than in the other two types of market. So, with people from high level of in come section, shopping in supermarket is their best choice. Food diversity: Supermarket now supplies consumers with a lot of food titles originating from Vietnam, Australia, USA, etc. The only disadvantage is that customers cannot choose the volume they want to buy, as a fixed volume of meat or vegetable is normally packaged. Only hypermarkets like Metro or Big C let you buy food as your desirable volume. + Convenience: Life is busy in these modern days for women since they have to cover both office work and housework. Consequently, they want to save time for shopping as much as possible.

There are two ways for this, one way is to shop for the whole week in supermarkets, the other one is to shop for each day or every two days in markets that near house. Due to our survey result, 74 out of 120 people- more than a half- used to shop for food everyday and only 9 people shop for the whole week. Habits might be a plausible explanation but I think another important reason is the convenience of parking lot. There’s a truth that you cannot carry food for the whole week on a motorbike but a car.

Most of the supermarkets in Hanoi have very little space for car parking. At present, only Metro and Big C have parking lot for 200 cars. [pic] So, the other way is to shop frequently every one or two days. If your house is near a supermarket, you are lucky. However, with 44 supermarkets distributed in an area of 3000km2, many people will find temporaries markets their most convenient places for food shopping, as they can buy food quickly without leaving their motorbikes in the parking lot or waiting in line for payment.

In a nutshell, it’s likely that supermarkets can replace temporary markets, yet not in the next 10 years as the coverage is not large enough and there’s still a section of people who cannot afford to buy food in the supermarkets. Conclusion After analyzing the four factors which have effects on the enforcement of Government’s policies of TMD, we can conclude that the tardiness in executing the law is resulted for four main reasons: 1. Hanoi people haven’t given up the habit of shopping for food in temporary markets due to their income level and their lifestyle. . Weakness in Local Executive department, consisting of weakness in coordination between local polices, corruption and lack of determination. 3. Unsatisfied concern of the Government for the vendors in temporary markets about their jobs and their lives. 4. Lack of alternatives for temporary markets in Hanoi. Hanoi is going to complete many new buildings and projects to celebrate the occasion of “Thang Long a thousand year”. Among them, market project is a very important one as markets always go together with the development of economy and society.

Until now, we can reckon 80% that the project can not be done before the celebration. However, as the fulfillment of the project is necessary for the future development of Hanoi, we definitely recommend the Government to have an adequate concerns and investments to the project, which include concerns for consumer demand, employment for poor sellers, honest and confidential executive staff, investment in building other permanent markets, in order to bring about the beauty, clean and civilization to our capital. Appendix Group 8 QUESTIONAIRE 1.

Which district in Hanoi do you live in? • Hai Ba Trung district • Hoan Kiem district • Ba Dinh district • Tay Ho district • Dong Da district • Cau Giay district • Hoang Mai district • Long Bien district • Thanh Xuan district 2. What is your family’s income per month? • < 2,000,000vnd • 2,000,000vnd- 5,000,000vnd • 5,100,000vnd- 10,000,000vnd • 10,000,000vnd 3. How much do you often spend for food (to cook) per day? • < 50,000vnd • 50vnd- 150vnd • >150vnd 4. How often do you go to the food market? • Everyday • Twice or three times a week • About once a week 5.

When is the most suitable time for you to go shopping for food? • In the morning • In the afternoon • Others 6. When you go shopping for food, which criteria is more important, which criteria is less important? ( rank the importance from No1 to No 6) • Hygiene • Competitive price • Food diversity • Convenient location • Service- seller’s attitude • Parking lot available 7. Where do you often go shopping for food? • Supermarkets • Convenient stores or grocery stores • Permanent markets • Temporary markets 8. Please give your assessment about the food quality in these market types: Supermarkets |Good | |Convenient stores/grocery stores |Normal, It takes time to choose the good ones | |Permanent markets |Bad | |Temporary markets | |

Customer Directly Interview 1. Where do you often go shopping for food? 2. Why don’t you shop for food in supermarkets? 3. What do you think if there is a temporary market in front of your doors? Bibliography (list of websites) http://vn. nielsen. com/site/index. shtml www. ftaresearch. com www. gso. gov. vn www. tin247. com http://www. ktdt. com. vn/print. asp? newsid=164511 http://www. tapchicongnghiep. vn/News/PrintView. aspx? ID=22233 http://www. sggp. org. vn http://www. kienthuckinhte. om/ban-hang/kien-thuc-ban-hang/281-thoi-quen-mua-sam-cua-nguoi-viet. html http://www. tgvn. com. vn/Item/VN/BanDocViet/2009/6/4A445A50BFCEF5DA/ http://images. google. com. vn [pic][pic][pic][pic] ———————– [1] From now on, ‘seller’ is used to imply the food sellers in markets. [2] Statistics from people’s committee of Hanoi before the enforcement of TMD policies [3] Source: General Statistics Office [4] According to the research’s result of Nielsen Vietnam ———————–

Cua Nam permanent market now become a trade center. Picture taken on 25th Oct, 2009 Figure 1. 2. 3 [pic]$%&34•? zY? eoooCIKLNPmvwyS? “”•—? aoeUEU?? ©??? ©? –?? ©–‹–?? –?? x? x? xp? pxUa? [email protected]? h$«CJ OJQJaJ h[[email protected]? h$«OJQJ h{%[email protected]? hu |[email protected]? h» OJQJ h? |[email protected]? hz+? [email protected]? h? [email protected]? h? [email protected]: xalo. com. vn Usual sight on Long Bien bridge (Jun 2009) Source: google Most of supermarkets like Fivimart use a part of the street as their car parks. *Photograph taken on 25th Oct,2009

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