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93. Old ages after the Nathu-La base on balls, the highest traded base on balls between China and India opened, the Myanmar, China and India authoritiess are working together to re-build Burma ‘s historic ‘Stilwell Road ‘ . The route which passes through Myanmar could cut costs of transporting goods between China and India by 30 per centum and will greatly help the trade of trade goods from India ‘s stray North East to China. The Stilwell Road was once the path from India used by British and American forces to provide Chinese military personnels in the conflict against Nipponese business during the Second World War. While both India and China had contested to build the route, the contract to reconstruct the 312 kilometre stretch from Myitkyina in Myanmar to Pangsau Pass on the India-Myanmar boundary line was eventually awarded to China ‘s Yunnan Construction Engineering Group in a joint venture with the Burmese military-backed Yuzana Group.

It winds its manner from Ledo in Assam through Jairampur and Nampong in Arunachal Pradesh until it reaches the Pangsau Pass ( aka the “ Hell Pass ” ) where it crosses into Myanmar. The route so weaves through upper Myanmar to make Myitkyina before turning due east to China where it culminates at Kunming, the capital of Yunnan state. Approximately 61 kilometer tallies through India, 1,035 kilometer through Myanmar and 640 kilometer in China. hypertext transfer protocol: //static.indianexpress.com/m-images/Tue % 20Sep % 2004 % 202007, % 2000:00 % 20hrs/M_Id_10142.jpg

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94. After the war, the route has fallen into neglect, and with neither of the three states collaborating with each other until now, the route was about non-existent in many topographic points. However with a reclamation of ties and trade in the part lifting manifold, the significance of ancient trade paths has regained prominence. Beijing has already renovated the stretch running through China and linked it with the state ‘s expressway web. It has besides been developing other substructure in Yunnan, where Kunming is an progressively of import industrial centre, in order to maximise additions from trade once the Stilwell Road is reopened.

Commercial and Economic Relationss
95. Geographic propinquity between India and Myanmar has translated into a long-standing economic and commercial dealingss across the land and sea paths likewise. India-Myanmar bilateral trade had grown steadily in the 1990s to make a degree of US $ 328 million in 1997-98. The trade volume continued to lift through the 2000s upto US $ 569.17 million in 2005-06. The trade turnover shot up to US $ 892.99 million in 2006-07 doubling merely in two old ages. The balance of trade has ever been in favour of Myanmar. Harmonizing to Myanmar statistics, in 2001-02, India was the 2nd largest- market for Myanmar ‘s exports. The entire trade in 2010-11 ( US $ 1070.88 ) has more than doubled in the last five old ages. India is now the fifth largest trade spouse of Myanmar ( 4th largest export finish for Myanmar and 7th largest beginning of imports into Myanmar ) after Thailand, China, Hong Kong, Singapore.

96. Bilateral Trade. India-Myanmar bilateral trade is estimated at US $ 1070.88 manganese harmonizing to official figures. However, the existent trade between Indian and Myanmar is hard to penetrate due to merchandise via 3rd state ( Singapore ) and unequal handiness of informations

97. Imports. India ‘s imports from Myanmar ( US $ 876.13 ) are dominated by agricultural and forest based merchandises. Myanmar is the 2nd largest provider of beans and pulsations to India, following merely to Canada, accounting for one tierce of India ‘s entire demands of imported pulsations. In 2010-11, export of pulsations and beans accounted for more than 9 % ( US $ 802 manganese ) of Myanmar ‘s exports ( 8.8 bn US $ ) entirely. Of this, more than 66 % is exported to India. Myanmar contributes to about one fifth of India ‘s imports of lumber, 2nd merely to Malaysia. In 2010-11 lumber and wood merchandises accounted for more than 30 % of Myanmar ‘s exports to India.

98. Exports. India ‘s exports ( US $ 194.75 ) to Myanmar, though little, are diverse, runing from primary trade goods to manufactured merchandises. Primary and semi-finished steel along with steel bars and rods constitute over one tierce of India ‘s exports. In 2010-11, coupled with metals, this trade good accounted for more than 30 % of India ‘s exports to Myanmar. Pharmaceuticals are the following most of import point and accounted for 27 % ( about US $ 60 manganese ) of India ‘s exports to Myanmar in 2009-10. Indian companies have the largest market portion ( about 40 % ) of the Myanmar Pharma market which is estimated to be about 180 manganese in 2010-11. Over 13 Indian drug company companies like Sun, Ranbaxy, Zydus Cadila, Dr Reddy, Lupin, Cipla etc are active in Myanmar. Pharmaceutical merchandises contribute 26.6 % ( US $ 55 manganese ) of India ‘s entire exports to Myanmar. The other merchandises exported to Myanmar are Iron & A ; Steel ( US $ 43 manganese ) , electrical machinery, Mineral oil, Rubber and articles, plastics etc. Export of chemicals, works & A ; machinery and consumer goods, though little, shows possible for growing.

99. Border Trade. Although trade in traditional goods on caput burden footing has been the customary pattern since a long clip, the Border Trade Agreement signed in 1994 gave it a legal model. The Moreh- Tamu point in the Manipur sector was operationalized in April 1995. Under the 1994 Agreement, A 2nd boundary line trade point at Champai – Rhi in the Mizoram sector was opened on 30 January 2004. A 3rd boundary line trade point is proposed to be opened at Avakhung-Pansat/Somrai. India besides proposes to construct a 45 hectare Integrated Customs Station at Moreh. India and Myanmar have agreed to upgrade the position of Border Trade to Normal trade and have expanded the tradable list points from 18 to 40 since 2008. With an estimated boundary line trade of US $ 12.8 manganese ( 2010-11 ) , major points bought by Myanmar bargainers from the Indian side are cotton narration, car parts, soya bean repast and pharmaceuticals, ( studies besides about smuggling of points like fertilisers, vehicles peculiarly two Wheelers etc. ) ; betel nut, dried ginger, green green gram beans, black matpe, turmeric roots, rosin and medicative herbs are the chief points sold from Myanmar to India. Harmonizing to the Myanmar Department of Border Trade, the boundary line trade turnover between India and Myanmar has ranged from US $ 10 to US $ 22 million, though it is likely higher if informal agreements are taken into history.

100. Foreign Direct Investment. India is the 13th largest investor with an investing estimated at US $ 189 million in five undertakings. These include three investing proposals from Indian public sector oil companies worth US $ 137 million as approved by the Myanmar Investment Commission. However, to boot, Essar Oil Pvt Ltd has reported investings in Oil geographic expedition. Besides, in 2010 OVL and GAIL announced 1.33 bn investing in China-Myanmar gas grapevine undertaking.

101. Private Sector Participation. Indian Private Sector endeavors have shown considerable involvement in Myanmar in the recent old ages in Hotels & A ; Tourism, plantation, cement, paper Millss, pumps and other agricultural machinery, cars and treating industries. Indian investing in Myanmar is estimated at US $ 189 manganese in five undertakings which include investings by companies including OVL, GAIL, and Essar Oil Ltd. Jubilant Energy has won the contract for the onshore block PSC-I in 2011. In add-on to the above, Indian companies like Punj Lloyd, L & A ; T, Apollo Hospitals, Tata Motors, Essar, NHPC, VNL, Jindal Steel, Nipha Exports etc. are active in Myanmar in assorted sectors.

102. Recent Developments In Bilateral Trade & A ; Investment. Private enterpriser from both states have shown increasing involvement in carry oning bilateral trade and commercialism. This has been reflected in the big figure of trade enquiries received from Indian and Myanmar business communities. The enquiries from India relate to the export of pharmaceuticals, agricultural machinery, agrochemicals, electrical goods, Fe and steel and IT-related merchandises and services. From Myanmar, business communities are acute to obtain information on export of pulsations and beans and import of the assorted points listed supra. In add-on to this, the Government of India, in coaction with Government of Myanmar has organized WTO workshops, visits for E-Networking undertaking as a portion of India-ASEAN inaugural etc. to heighten bilateral commercial and economic dealingss in 2011. United bank of India deputation visited Myanmar in January 2012 to research the possibility fo opening a representative office in Myanmar and for discoursing banking agreements between UBI and Bankss of Myanmar.

103. Joint Trade Committee. The mechanism of the Joint Trade Committee ( JTC ) , chaired by the several Commerce Ministers, has been effectual in reexamining and puting policy aims for bilateral trade between the two states. Put up in 2003, the Joint Trade Committee has met four times so far ( the last being in September 2011 ) and has successfully directed the rapid growing of commercial dealingss between the two states. 4th JTC was held on 27th September 2011 at New Delhi. Myanmar deputation was led by H.E U Win Myint, Minister for Commerce. He was accompanied by a functionaries from Government of Myanmar and a 5 member concern deputation including representative from Beans and Pulses sector, Tamu – Kalay Chamber of Commerce etc. During the meeting both sides reviewed bilateral trade and investing and agreed to duplicate the bilateral trade to US $ 3 bn by 2015. Other of import determination taken were puting up of Border Haats and to put up an India- Myanmar Joint Trade and Investment Forum. The two sides besides discussed ways to better connectivity between the two states, and puting up of a Border Trade Committee. India has proposed to direct a deputation of representatives of Indian Banking Sector to research to discourse banking agreements with Myanmar Bankss.

Trade Fair & A ; Market Promotion
104. Recent trade publicity events include the followers: –

( a ) The India Product Show 2012 stand foring 19 companies.

( B ) NEFIT ‘s auto mass meeting from Guwahati to Yangon and back.

( degree Celsius ) Enterprise India show 2011 organised by CII.

( vitamin D ) India Pharmaceutical Expo 2011 held in Yangon with the aid of PHARMEXCIL and the Myanmar Medical Association.

( vitamin E ) The North East India Conclave held in Yangon and Mandalay in September 2010 by the Indian Chamber of Commerce, Kolkata and the UMFCCI.

Culture Exchange
105. Performances by Indian cultural companies in Myanmar have been organised on a regular footing since 1997. Assorted cultural companies have exchanged visits and performed in both states. In November 2009, a 13-member pupil group from Myanmar attended SAARC Cultural Festival in India. In December 2009, a popular Myanmar music set ‘Emperor ‘ went to India to take part in the “ South Asiatic Bands Festival ” organized by Indian Council for Cultural Relations.

They besides performed in Shillong, Meghalaya. In January 2010, the Embassy organized the one-year “ Indian Film Festival ” at Yangon. This event has become a high spot of the Yangon cultural calendar. In March 2010, a celebrated landscape creative person from Myanmar went to Puducherry, India to take part in “ South Asiatic Artists Camp ” organized by ICCR and SEHER. The pictures emerging from that cantonment were exhibited in the Embassy Auditorium in November 2010 and received an outstanding response from the local community.

A 15-member theater group from Myanmar went to India take part in “ South Asian Theatre Festival ” organized by ICCR and NSD in March 2010. The “ Abiogenesis ” set performed Yangon and Mandalay in the last hebdomad of May 2010. A Qawalli group ( Sabri Brothers ) performed in Yangon and other metropoliss in Myanmar in January 2011. There was a jammed calendar of commemorating activities for the Rabindranath Tagore 150th birth anniversary jubilations, including a dance play, seminar, creative persons ‘ cantonment, movie festival etc. All the events were really good received by the Myanmar populace and media. Classs in Bharatnatyam and Yoga have been started in the Embassy since December 2010, with the support of the ICCR.

Human Resource Development Cooperation
106. The Government of India is implementing the Human Resource Development ( HRD ) cooperation with Myanmar under different strategies such as Indian Technical & A ; Economic Cooperation ( ITEC ) Programme, Technical Cooperation Scheme ( TCS ) of Colombo Plan and assorted scholarships offered by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations ( ICCR ) and Particular Course for ASEAN Diplomats. The countries of developing scope from classs in English linguistic communication, Information Technology, Computer Application to Agriculture, Remote Sensing, Industries, Urban Development, Parliamentary Studies, Mass Communication, Management, SME/Rural Development, Specialized Courses, Technical Courses, Environment and Renewable Energy Courses and other related countries. In add-on, the HRD Wing has besides been set uping preparation in Hindi linguistic communication for pupils of Indian beginning. Most of these strategies include to and fro air menu, populating allowance, book allowance and free survey Tourss.

107. Training Institutions Set up in MYANMAR with INDIAN Assistance. The Government of India has besides been involved in puting up four preparation establishments in Myanmar in coaction with local spouses. The establishments are: –

( a ) Myanmar-India Entrepreneurship Development Centre ( MIEDC ) . The Centre has been set up with the proficient aid of EDII, Ahmedabad and fiscal support from Government of India and maps under the administrative control of the Yangon Institute of Economics. Main preparation programmes offered are the New Enterprise Creation, Entrepreneurship Development and Performance Improvement Programmes. As on day of the month, 2481 pupils have been trained at the Centre.

( B ) Myanmar-India Centre for English Language Training ( MICELT ) . The Centre set up with proficient aid from the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad and fiscal support from Government of India is working under the administrative control of the University of Foreign Languages, Yangon. It provides preparation in proficiency of English linguistic communication, Official and Business Communications. It has run classs in INSET teacher preparation programmes at the certification degree and trial homework programme for pupils looking for IELTS. As on day of the month, more than 400 pupils have been trained at this Centre.

( degree Celsius ) India-Myanmar Centre for Enhancement of IT Skills ( IMCELTS ) . The Centre set up with the aid of C-DAC, Pune and fiscal support from Government of India is working under the administrative control of the University of Computer Studies, Yangon provides preparation in classs of Java scheduling, MS.NET scheduling and radio and Mobile computer science. So far, 1020 pupils have been trained at this Centre.

( vitamin D ) India -Myanmar Industrial Training Centre, Pakkoku. The Centre has been set up by HMT ( I ) Limited to develop skilled labor for Myanmar ‘s budding industrial sector. Trainings offered by the Centre are machinists-turners, machinists-millers, CNC mechanics, industrial linemans, electronics mechanics, heat intervention workers, car mechanics, sheet metal and welding workers and TIG/MIG welding workers. So far, 209 individuals have been trained at the Centre.

( vitamin E ) India-Myanmar Industrial Training Centre, Myingyan. A similar Center is being set up at Myingyan with fiscal aid from Government of India and Technical aid from HMTI. The MOU for this intent was signed by the two authoritiess on June 21, 2011.

Indian Diaspora
108. The beginning of the Indian community in Myanmar is traced back to the mid-19th

century with the coming of the British regulation in Lower Burma in 1852. The two metropoliss of Myanmar viz. , Yangon ( former Rangoon ) and Mandalay had a dominating presenceof Indians in assorted Fieldss such as civil services, instruction, trade & A ; commercialism during the British regulation. Harmonizing to 1983 functionary nose count of Myanmar the figure of PIOs in Myanmar is 428,428 and the estimated figure of homeless PIOs is to be 250,000. A big figure of the Indian community ( about 150,000 ) live in Bago ( Zeyawaddy & A ; Kyautaga ) and Tanintharyi Regions and Mon State and are chiefly engaged in farming. The NRI households in Myanmar chiefly live in Yangon and are engaged in export import concern or are employees of MNCs based in India, Singapore and Thailand.

Cooperation In Regional Forums
109. ASEAN. Myanmar became a member of ASEAN in July 1997. As the lone ASEAN state which portions a land boundary line with India, Myanmar is a span between India and ASEAN. A few proposals for cooperation have been implemented and some are under treatments with Myanmar within the model of ASEAN ‘s IAI programme.

110. BIMSTEC. Myanmar became a member of BIMSTEC in December 1997. Myanmar is a signer to the BIMSTEC Free Trade Agreement. Myanmar is the lead state for the energy sector. Myanmar trades largely with Thailand and India in the BIMSTEC part. Myanmar ‘s major exports to India are agricultural merchandises like beans, pulsations and maize and forest merchandises such as teak and hardwoods. Its imports from India include chemical merchandises, pharmaceuticals, electrical contraptions and conveyance equipment. The 13th BIMSTEC Ministerial Meeting was held in Myanmar in January 2011.

111. Mekong Ganga Cooperation. Myanmar is a member of the Mekong Ganga Cooperation ( MGC ) since its origin in November 2000. MGC is an inaugural by six states – India and five ASEAN states viz. , Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam – for cooperation in the Fieldss of touristry, instruction, civilization, conveyance and communicating. The chairmanship of MGC is assumed by member states in alphabetical order.

112. SAARC. Myanmar was given the position of perceiver in SAARC in August 2008.

Defence Cooperation
113. Defense mechanism cooperation between India and Myanmar is an of import aspect of bilateral dealingss. Indian Military heads have visited Myanmar in the past and exchanged positions on issues of common interest.. There have been regular port calls by Indian naval ships to Myanmar ports. Equally far as naval hardware is concerned, in 2006, India announced transportation of two BN-2 ‘Defender ‘ Islander maritime surveillance aircraft and deck-based air-defence guns to the Myanmar Navy. There were programs to assist Myanmar set up a naval air power preparation Centre in Myanmar.

Further, Myanmar Navy has on a regular basis participated in the Milan meetings held at Port Blair in the Andaman & A ; Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. During these events, Myanmar is represented either by a senior naval officer or a naval deputation or on occasions by a naval ship. Military preparation excessively has been an docket of bilateral defense mechanism cooperation. In 2006, the Indian Army had offered particular warfare preparation for Myanmar soldiers. Equally far as other military hardware is concerned, the Indian Army transferred a few light heavy weapon guns and Armoured Personal Carriers ( APC ) .

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