A concern of child labour exists from poverty. We have to understand as why children go to work. If parents don’t send their children to work I am sure factories will not be able to consume them. Why poor parents feel children as their assets who will earn money for their home
Nearly 30% of population in poor countries are poorest of poor who are not even able to earn enough for one day food with big family have to largely depend on children to earn and feed. Parents of these children are mainly illiterate or semi literate are unable to find jobs, which can provide enough salary.
Dream of education to children is impossible unless suitable employment opportunities made available to at least one person in the family. Simply by opening schools and providing books are not sufficient measures. We need to understand the reason behind child labour that is poverty and unemployment. Minimizing poverty and creation of more and more suitable jobs to parents are the only solution of eradication of majority of child labour problem.
Some percentage of child labour comes from brutality/ harassments by parents or stepparents. They are mainly from urban areas of lower middle-income group. This percentage is too less and easily controllable by penalties to such parents and children rights. But rural poverty and lack of employment or partial employment and illiteracy has given birth to majority of child labour problem.
Our understanding should be little more practical as no parents want their children work at the age when children are to study and play. System of child labour prevails in the countries, which are poor or underdeveloped. Nearly 70% of world’s poor live in Asia alone and major contribution made by China, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
Where 70% of populations live in rural areas have main employment in agriculture and small and cottage industries. Major percentage is illiterate or semi literate. In India alone around 45% of total thick population of one billion is illiterate/ semi-literate who is not able to find jobs in modern industries. 36% of total India’s population is illiterate. Main traditional crafts manufacturing has almost collapsed due to lack of demand in international market has further aggravated unemployment crisis.
Curse to especially Asian countries is a result of over population. Governments of Asia should boldly make decisions to control excessive growth of population even if they have to take harsh decisions. This can be achieved by announcing incentives and disincentives:
Education of fewer children to citizens is soft method of controlling but is useful to only literate class who are already adapted to fewer children. Semi-literates with partial success. Illiterates and have their reasons – religion is one of the big factors that illiterates misunderstand. Religious leaders are very helpful; taking religious leaders into confidence would definitely give partial success. Second reason what illiterates perceive is that more the children more the income this perception is definitely wrong and dangerous. For this some harsh steps to be taken.
Announcing incentives and disincentive to have limited children will be high success to control excessive growth of population.
A- Entitlement of subsidized food articles and services. It looks difficult in democratic countries, subsidy to be allocated by grading small family and big family would help.
B- Entitlement of government positions and promotions.
C- Entitlement of special preference for small family of poor category to upgrade standard of living by way of loan and education of small scale industry to set up.
Accountability of Central and state heads: Each central/ state/ district and local area head should be made responsible and accountable in his or her legislative area by mutual agreement. This would be a grate step. Conscious of responsibility would definitely control population. Also these heads would be helpful to upgrade their areas.
Thick populated countries with higher level of poverty should work for industrialization that is helpful for all categories of population such as literate or semi-literate and illiterates. Governments of these countries mainly concentrate on the modernization and heavy industries. Of course in present world modernization of industries is very important to withstand the international competition and standard. Disadvantage of concentrating only on heavy industries is it does not full fill absolute employment opportunity.
Reason is major percentage of rural are either illiterate or semi-literate they can be consumed in small and cottage industries such as agricultural instruments and tools handloom/ handicrafts/ poultry farms and etc. Scope of these sectors has to be widened as this sector has capacity to consume mass level of workers. As largely heavy industries are pruning their staff due to recession in heavy competition these unemployed people will shoot unemployment crisis further among literates. Small-scale and agricultural industries will be beneficial for them also.