Research is an inevitable phenomenon for any research undertaking. Harmonizing to Kumar ( 2005 ) it is a important portion of the thesis which helps in replying the inquiries posed in the research undertaking by following different attacks and doctrines.
On the other manus Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) defines research as a procedure which is conducted to happen out the replies for assorted things in an organized mode. Research should be based on the undermentioned features depicted by Fig 2
Fig.2: Research Characteristics Beginning: Original
The informations used to reply the research job must be collected in an orderly and systematic mode. Walliman ( 2001 ) cited in saunders ( 2007 ) highlighted that if the information is non collected in a logical manner it will non be termed as a piece of research as it will miss the clear intent and reading. Therefore, it is necessary to roll up the informations from assorted acknowledgeable resources and so to construe informations decently and place the clear intent of the research informations.
Jai peera di, jai peera di
Hence, the research worker has analysed these points and studied different theoretical accounts and attacks to follow the best suited mode for developing the research methodological analysis in a systematic manner which will farther assist to decide the research jobs of this peculiar undertaking.
3.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
To place the best suited attack for carry oning the research more expeditiously and efficaciously, it is necessary to first specify the research aim of the survey:
To analyze the jobs faced by Indian Women Entrepreneurs and finding the factors which are actuating them to go enterprisers despite all the jobs faced.
Therefore, to work out the research aim, the research worker will concentrate on following the appropriate research attack and scheme so that the best method should be adopted for carry oning the research.
3.3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
Validity and dependability are the theories which help the research worker to analyze the academic worth and credibleness of the research. It besides helps in finding the best research methods for the research work to be carried on resourcefully. Establishing cogency of the research is really of import for the research worker as it will assist him/her to analyze whether the information gained by utilizing questionnaires or interviews is valid or non.
Cogency can be either internal, which includes the findings which are specifically meant for the peculiar research undertaking or it can be external, where the findings are in context with a wider population. Furthermore, it is highlighted that the dependability of the research method is every bit of import and both cogency and dependability go manus in manus. Dependability refers to the uniformity of the informations obtained by using the specific research method ( Taylor et al, 2006 ) .
Therefore, to see that the informations acquired is valid and dependable, the research worker has taken attention that the informations collected ( by choosing for the best research methods ) is free from any bias positions and is strictly obtained by carry oning in depth interviews and by administering questionnaires among the targeted group of people. In add-on, the secondary information is acquired by acquiring information from dependable books, peer-reviewed diaries and newspapers etc.
3.4 RESEARCH SEQUENCE
Harmonizing to Johnson and Gill ( 2002 ) , research should be carried in a chronological order as it helps the research worker to work measure by measure towards achieving the research ends. They further province that the usage of seven sequence theoretical accounts ( Howard & A ; Sharp ( 1983 ) ) is peculiarly utile for anyone working on the research undertaking at any degree. The seven measure sequence theoretical account is depicted by Fig.2
IDENTIFYING THE RESEARCH AREA
Choosing THE RESEARCH TOPIC
Deciding THE Approach
FORMULATING RESEARCH Plan
ANALYSING DATA COLLECTED
FIG.2: THE RESEARCH SEQUENCE
Beginning: Johnson and Gill ( 2002 )
It is highlighted by Johnson and Gill ( 2002 ) that the proper sequence should be followed by the research worker and he/she should give clip to each and every measure so that the research aims should be achieved without any barriers.
Therefore, the research worker has followed this sequence in her research and clearly defined the research subject and has used a good defined research program so that the research conducted should turn out helpful for the targeted subdivision of the population.
3.5 RESEARCH MODEL
The research theoretical account applied by the research worker for this survey is “ Onion ” by Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) as this theoretical account helps the research worker in indentifying the appropriate research methods for informations aggregation and implementing them to their ain research. This research procedure named “ onion ” helps the research worker to critically analyze all the research attacks and doctrines and further “ aid in picturing the issues underlying the pick of informations aggregation methods ” . The research procedure contains of five different beds, viz. :
Data Collection Methods
The research procedure is depicted with the aid of Fig 3, which will assist in clear apprehension of the research procedure.
Data Collection Methods
The first bed of the procedure is the research doctrine. It is further divided into three doctrines which are positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. These three positions have a important function in the direction research as they help in placing the agencies due to which cognition is generated and accepted ( Saunders et al, 2007 ) .
3.5.1 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY
Bell et Al ( 2007 ) describes positivism doctrine as a theory which works on the application of natural scientific discipline methods followed by natural scientists towards the survey of societal world. It is based on scientific cognition instead than being subjective.
On the other manus, Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) high spots positivism as a doctrine wherein the research worker acts as an independent analyst, construing the information collected in a value-free mode. He farther states that the consequence of this research can be law-like generalizations where the information is observed in quantifiable footings and the research done is strictly nonsubjective.
The research is nonsubjective in nature as it is based on observation and aggregation of quantitative informations from the selected sample of the population. Therefore, the research worker has used positivism doctrine in the research work by the usage of questionnaire to get quantifiable informations.
Harmonizing to Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) , it is hard for the concern and direction to be merely based on the theory of positivism which relies entirely on the law-like generalizations without taking into consideration the other complexnesss of the societal universe.Thus, Interpretivism doctrine comes into the function which focuses on the demand of analyzing the importance of subjective significance of the research. It is based on understanding the behavior of people, so the research worker is wholly involved in the survey. Besides, the readings made by research worker are based on the information collected by detecting and understanding the people involved in the research.
The research worker has implemented interpretivism doctrine as the research takes into consideration the point of view of adult females entrepreneur by speaking to them and doing readings based on their actions and motivations.
Therefore, the research has employed both the doctrines as it is good for the research work to come on without any hurdlings.
3.5.2 RESEARCH APPROACH
After make up one’s minding the research doctrine for the research, the following bed of the “ onion ” is research attack. There are two types of research attack, deductive and inductive attack. The differences between the two attacks are shown with the aid of Table 1.
Top- down attack
Collection of quantitative informations
Collection of qualitative informations
Based on positivism doctrine
Based on interpretivism doctrine
No engagement of the research worker
Researcher is involved in the procedure
Table 1: Differences between the research approaches Source: Original
As per Lancaster ( 2005 ) deductive attack is the most normally used attack in the natural scientific disciplines. In this attack, the theory is developed and so tested out by empirical observation. This attack is besides termed as “ top-down attack ” . It begins with choice of a broader theory and so contracting it farther to a more specific hypothesis which can be tested by the research worker ( Trochim, 2006 )
Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) refers deductive theory as a proving theory wherein the theory is based on scientific rules. It involves the attack in a extremely structured mode and is based on aggregation of qualitative informations. In this theory, the research worker is non involved and the observations are nonsubjective, similar to the positivism doctrine of research.
On the contrary, Inductive attack is a “ bottom-down attack ” . It is a flexible attack where the information is used to construct up the theory and steering the research procedure. Unlike deductive attack, inductive attack helps the research worker by explicating new theories instead than underscoring on the bing theory
( Carson et al, 2001 ) .
Furthermore, Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) bring into visible radiation that inductive attack focuses its attending on developing the theory by utilizing qualitative methods of informations aggregation. It involves understanding and construing the behavior of the worlds involve in the research procedure. Therefore, the research worker is closely attached to the research procedure.
Hence after traveling through the research approaches, researcher decided to implement a combination of both the attacks for this research as it has been observed that these attacks have their single benefits and supply valuable informations to the research worker. Besides, when combined together, they yield better consequences. By the usage of deductive attack, the research worker gets the benefit of detecting and proving the bing theory, whereas by inductive attack he/she will is able to develop a new theory which might turn out utile in the hereafter ( Carson et al, 2001 ) .
Therefore, a balanced mix of both the attacks is adopted in the present research work.
3.5.3 RESEARCH STRATEGIES
Harmonizing to Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) , research scheme is an of import portion of the thesis as it helps the research worker to place the program sing how the aims of the research will be concluded. A research scheme should besides include the proper logical thinking behind utilizing the peculiar research scheme for your research and how will it turn out to be good for the undertaking.
There are assorted types of research schemes such as experiments, study method, instance survey, exploratory, descriptive etc.
Survey research besides referred as descriptive research is a really effectual manner of carry oning research as it allows the research worker to roll up the immense sum of informations really economically. The study scheme employs usage of questionnaires to roll up information from the big group of people ( Ary et al, 2009 ) .
Furthermore, it has been analysed that usage of study scheme is considered to be dependable by general people as they consider studies to be free from any bias positions. However, this type of scheme has its ain set of disadvantages as this method is assumed to be clip devouring. It involves batch of clip to develop inquiries and design the questionnaires.
Another research scheme is explorative surveies. As per Robson ( 2002 ) this scheme helps in garnering the information and analyzing the current prevailing state of affairs by the manner of questioning the appropriate people or either by making a thorough research of the literature.
Adams and Schvaneveldt ( 1991 ) emphasises that the advantage of this scheme is that, it is flexible in nature. This scheme helps the research worker to alter the way of the research harmonizing to the informations obtained by carry oning interviews. It helps the research worker to include any new findings in the research work. Therefore, this indicates that this sort of scheme is adaptative and easy to use.
The research worker has clearly understood all the schemes before make up one’s minding on a multi-method scheme ( utilizing study and explorative surveies ) as it is good for the undermentioned grounds for this peculiar research work:
By study scheme, research worker will derive an penetration about the positions of general adult females on the issues faced by adult females enterprisers in India.
By carry oning explorative surveies by the agencies of interview with one female enterpriser, the research worker will be able to set up the factors which motivated her to take up entrepreneurship and what issues did she faced while set uping herself as an enterpriser.
Besides, it has been analysed that usage of multi-method scheme i.e. uniting methods is good for the research and makes it clearer and therefore helps the research worker to run into the aims.
3.5.4 TYPES OF RESEARCH
After analyzing the attacks to research and make up one’s minding upon the research scheme, it is of import for the research worker to place the assorted types of research, so that he/she can use the best research attack, so that it can convey researcher one measure closer to run into the desired research aims.
Harmonizing to Kumar ( 2005 ) assorted research techniques and methods combined together helps the research worker to garner the information about assorted issues which can be used suitably for understanding and augmentation of the research job posed in the thesis.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH JAI PEERA DI, JAI PEERA DI, JAI PEERA DIq
Harvey ( 2008 ) states that it is a information which is strictly nonsubjective in nature and is based on processs and regulations instead than being subjective.Quantitative research refers to the numerical informations collected which can be quantified and analysed to work out the research job and run into the research ends. It involves usage of many informations aggregation techniques which helps the research worker to garner the informations accurately and analyze it to make to an appropriate decision. The information collected is represented by the usage of graphs and tabular arraies ( Blaikie, 2003 ) .
The informations collected by utilizing quantitative technique is advantageous for the research work as it is dependable because it employs thorough observation and experiments. Besides, it follows the pre-determined research ends and provides nonsubjective decisions after analyzing the numerical informations gathered ( Matveev, 2002 ) .
However, it can non be ever considered accurate as the findings are normally limited and they are presented in the signifier of numerical informations instead than depicting the information intricately. Further, it may be biased as it is based on a structured attack with standard inquiries and has low engagement of the targeted population ( Learn higher, 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to Bock and Sergeant ( 2002 ) qualitative research is concerned with understanding the collected informations instead than concentrating on the numerical readings. This research does non affect any numerical informations and is focussed on analyzing the behavioral facet by carry oning in-depth interviews with the topic involved ( sample of population ) .
The qualitative research helps the research worker to undertake with the research job with logical generalization alternatively of concentrating on statistical manner of work outing the job. It is based on the standards of credibleness, dependableness and confirmability. Credibility refers to acknowledging and depicting the capable affair accurately harmonizing to the literature and the population used in the research survey. Dependability refers to the degree of alterations which are brought about by the emerging theory in context with the topic being studied. Confirmability highlights whether the information gathered is confirmed by the work of other established writers. ( Harker, 2008 ) .
The research worker has used both qualitative and quantitative research in her research as it is important for this research work to follow the mix of both the research methods. The research worker has used questionnaires to acquire the quantitative informations to analyze the issues faced by adult females enterprisers in India. On the other manus, in deepness interview has been conducted by the research worker with a adult females enterpriser utilizing interview method ( utilizing qualitative attack ) .
3.5.5 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
There are two types of informations, viz. , primary and secondary informations. Collection of information is an built-in portion for geting reply for the research inquiry and to run into the aims ( Saunder et al, 2007 ) . Types of informations and assorted informations aggregation techniques are represented with the aid of Figure 4
Secondary informations is the informations collected by the cognition and information from the information which has been ab initio collected and published by others. ( Kurtz, 2008 ) . This information can be used by the research worker for “ descriptive and explanatory research ” and it is further divided in assorted types. The secondary informations used can be either raw, unpublished informations or can be work which has already been published ( Kervin, 1999 ) .
It helps the research worker by supplying him/her with the chance to analyze the bing literature in the country where they want to carry on his/her ain research. The research worker besides additions in deepness cognition about the topic which is to be studied in the research work. Therefore, it helps the research worker to hold sufficient apprehension of the research job and provides answer to work out the same. Furthermore, after obtaining the information and after analyzing it, the research worker is able to acquire new thoughts which can be used to acquire primary informations ( Day, 2008 ) .
1. It saves clip and cost of the research worker as the information is collected by books, diaries and cyberspace. It is good for the research worker as there is minimal attempt involved on his portion.
2. It is of aid when the information related to old events is needed by the research worker as it is non possible to roll up that information utilizing primary research.
Therefore, the research worker has gathered the secondary information by utilizing beginnings like books, peer-reviewed and up to day of the month diaries ( proquest and emerald ) , seeking online web sites which are dependable. The research worker went through many books on Women entrepreneurship in India and other states to acquire a proper apprehension of the subject and has used many diaries, as they are seasonably updated and sporadically published. Besides, many web sites working for the benefits of adult females and other authorities web sites were besides used for garnering informations which can be termed as genuine and free from any prejudice.