The present research proposes to analyze the function of few of import factors of glass ceiling which straight impact the calling growing of adult females employees. The term Glass Ceiling refers to an unobserved, yet unbreachable barrier that keeps adult females employees from lifting to the top of the corporate ladder, irrespective of their makings and accomplishments. Methods: The 80 adult females employees were interviewed with the aid of questionnaires. Consequences: The glass ceiling has an consequence on calling growing of adult females employees..
Decision: The factors which were found responsible for glass ceiling are gender prejudice, function ambiguity, managerial perceptual experience, organisational policy, and deficiency of household support which act as barriers in growing of calling. Deduction: Being of glass ceiling consequence has significantly impacted the organisation in footings of deficiency of productiveness, biasness and stereotype. Originality/value: The paper reports that the glass ceiling consequence plays a important function in impeding the calling promotion in adult females.
Cardinal words: Glass Ceiling Effect, Career Advancement, Women Employees, Organization
The “ glass ceiling ” has frequently been used to depict unobserved obstructions ( “ glass ” ) through which adult females can see privileged places but can non make them ( “ ceiling ” ) . These obstructions prevent big Numberss of adult females from obtaining and procuring the most powerful, esteemed, and extremely paid occupations in the work force. In add-on, this barrier can do many adult females feel as they are non valuable plenty to hold these high places. The glass ceiling continues to be although there are no expressed obstructions maintaining adult females and minorities from geting advanced occupation places – there are no advertizements that specifically say “ no minorities hired at this constitution ” , nor are at that place any formal orders that say minorities are non qualified ” ( equal employment chance Torahs forbid this sort of favoritism ) – but they do lie beneath the surface.
When a company exercises this type of favoritism they typically look for the most plausible account they can happen to warrant their determination. Most frequently this is done by mentioning qualities that are extremely subjective or by retrospectively emphasizing/de-emphasizing specific standards that gives the chosen candidate the border. Chiefly this unseeable barrier seems to be in more of the development states, where this consequence is extremely “ seeable ” . There are many different hindrances placed upon adult females that make it hard for them to achieve a higher work position. With these really negative effects on adult females and their self-pride, the glass ceiling has created an even larger job than merely in the work topographic point.
Most see the glass ceiling as merely being in the work topographic point, which is where it originally was intended for, it has spread to embrace the family and others every bit good. The barrier within the family has been seen as the trouble a adult female has of acquiring out of the family and roll uping a occupation. Not all adult females feel as they are being suppressed in the family and many adult females choose to be in the family in which instance the glass ceiling does non use to them. The term merely applies to those adult females who wish to be out in the work field but are unable to make so. Because the glass ceiling limits the chances of adult females in developing states, the term has broadened and besides go an issue around the universe.
To place the factors lending to glaze ceiling in Indian organisations.
To find the impact of glass ceiling on calling promotion of adult females.
Reappraisal of literature
“ Glass Ceiling ” is basically a western term that has late appeared and gained widespread attending in American literature. It refers to a crystalline barrier that prevents the upward mobility of adult females in corporations. ( Morrison, White, & A ; Van Velsor, 1992 ; Solomon, 1990 ) . Morrison et Al. ( 1992, p. 13 ) province that: “ The glass ceiling is non merely a barrier for an person, based on the individual ‘s inability to manage a higher-level occupation. Rather, the glass ceiling applies to adult females as a group who are kept from progressing higher because they are adult females ” . Research workers have studied the glass ceiling consequence in samples arising chiefly from American organisations ( Kagan, 1986 ; Krueger, 1991 ; Morrison, White, & A ; Van Velsor, 1986 ) .
Bagues, Manuel F, ( 2009 ) reviewed in their research that for old ages, adult females have been contending within all types of organisations for equal functions in the workplace, equal wage for equal work, and equal regard alongside their male opposite numbers. Some say that these barriers which are frequently beginnings of stressors that one time existed for adult females in the workplace have since been broken down.
Others say these walls are still steadfastly standing and that many adult females are no longer willing to contend this conflict.In fact many female workers are naming it quits in footings of the effort to win every bit alongside their male opposite numbers peculiarly within the traditional “ old male child ‘s web ” type organisation. The age of adult females entrepreneurship is upon us ; so much so that more and more research on adult females entrepreneurship is going seeable and may shortly be identified as the new adult females ‘s release motion of the twenty-first century.
Baxter, J. and Wright, E.O. , ( 2000 ) analyzed that one of the major societal alterations over the past coevals has been the employment of female parents outside the place. This is now the norm instead than the rareness of old coevalss, about 70 % of adult females with immature kids are presently working outside the place. Compared to a coevals ago this represents an approximative 50 % addition in the figure of working female parents. Further, although adult females had played of import functions in concern, the figure of functions was really limited until 60 old ages ago, at least in the United States.
Flowers ‘ ( 2001 ) research revealed that two monumental paradigm displacements had occurred to leap get down this societal alteration. First, when the U.S. entered World War II, 100s of 1000s of adult females joined the workplace as replacing workers for working-age males called into military responsibility. Second, the micro chip was invented, switching the universe toward an information-and knowledge-based economic system.
Koshal & A ; Gupta ( 1998 ) conducted a study to happen out to what degree the glass ceiling exists in the largest democracy of the universe and how adult females director maps? The survey besides intends to analyse what sort of cultural barriers are bing for adult females in India that prevent them from progressing to corporate leading places? The consequences of survey revealed that more than 40 percent work forces and adult females believe that there are important barriers to adult females ‘s promotion in their organisations and organisations do non promote adult females plenty to presume leading place.
There appears to be unfairness in wage in corporate India, fifty seven percent adult females think that they need to work harder than work forces to turn out their competency. Male stereotyping, exclusion of adult females from informal communicating web, committedness to household duties, deficiency of concern experience, and non being in the grapevine long plenty are some of the barriers to adult females ‘s promotion.
Eggins ( 1997 ) in her book “ Women as leaders and Managers in Higher Education ” mentioned that adult females who serve as leaders of the academic establishments confront all the issues that adult females executives face in any big and complex concern organisations. They besides confront alone issues, one of which is to educate & amp ; accept new coevals to a broader apprehension of adult females ‘s functions in organisation that have a very traditional and masculine cultural ethos. However, adult females faculty members have yet to accomplish these places of direction in order to dispute the position quo.
Veale & A ; Gold ( 1998 ) conducted a research in Metropolitan District Council situated in Yorkshire, UK besides confirmed that glass ceiling did be within the council and this hindered adult females advancement on top places.
Van Vianen & A ; Fischer ( 2002 ) conclude that both work forces and adult females at the direction degree reported stronger penchants for masculine civilization. Furthermore they found that adult females were found to be less ambitious than work forces, and even ambitious adult females perceived work place struggle as an of import barrier to calling.
Jeavons & A ; Sevastos ( 2002 ) found that glass ceiling prevents adult females in the organisations. They stated that even degrees of publicities did be in work forces and adult females. The information showed that the adult females are employed by the organisation at a degree that was much lower than their makings or lower than work forces making the same occupation.
Peter ( 2003 ) argues that adult females themselves fail to understand the displacement in focal point while traveling from the center to senior and top direction maps. While busying the top places, they are still executing less strategic and lower paying undertakings. Women enter a professional system with deficiency of job-clarity and limited information on formal undertakings and maps, that besides becomes growing barrier for them.
H0- There is no important relationship between Glass Ceiling and Career Advancement of adult females
H1- There is a important relationship between Glass Ceiling and Career Advancement of adult females
The survey is based on both primary and secondary informations. The secondary information is collected from organisation records, diaries, research articles and particular undertaking studies. Primary information is collected from the employees of assorted organisations with the aid of questionnaires on glass ceiling and calling promotion distributed among 80 adult females employees.
Glass Ceiling ( Independent variable ) : The presence of glass ceiling was measured by the 27-item Questionnaire. The questionnaire scaled to a 5 point Likert graduated table runing from 1 for strongly differ to 5 for strongly agree, was used to mensurate Glass Ceiling consequence. The Cronbach ‘s alpha was.79.
Career Advancement ( Dependent variable ) : Career Advancement was measured by the 26-item Questionnaire. The questionnaire scaled to a 5 point Likert graduated table runing from 1 for Not at All Helpful to 5 for Greatly Helpful, was used to mensurate Glass Ceiling consequence. The Cronbach ‘s alpha was.76.
The processing and analysis of information was conducted with the aid of the computing machine package SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences ) . Combined mean of each parametric quantity of glass ceiling was carried out to happen out which factor was the most and least of import determiner of glass ceiling and combined mean of each parametric quantity of calling promotion was carried out to happen out the of import determiner of the calling promotion of adult females in Indian organisation. ANOVA and Correlation was conducted for analysis and reading of relationship between the independent variable i.e. Glass Ceiling consequence and the dependant variable i.e. Career promotion of adult females.
The factors which are highly responsible for glass ceiling consequence are foremost of all managerial perceptual experience and gender biasness, followed by organisational policy and least is function ambiguity. This gives us a clear image that work forces attitude towards adult females has non changed in the footings of gender, stereotype and are still considered to be a weaker sex. Second the organisational policy besides does n’t prefer adult females to hold senior places in the organisation.
The characteristics which act as a barrier in calling promotion are deficiency of household support which is the taking factors of obstruction in calling growing. Subsequently so calling focal point, attitude towards organisation and the in conclusion delighting personality act as a obstruction.
The value of R square for the two variables is 0.021 bespeaking that there is a important impact of glass ceiling consequence prevalent in the organisation and its function in calling promotion of adult females in that organisation.
The correlativity between glass ceiling and calling promotion of adult females is -.045 which is negatively correlated. So there exists a relationship, though non really strong, between glass ceiling and calling promotion of adult females.
‘This present research was carried out to find the consequence of glass ceiling on the calling promotion of adult females in Indian organisations across assorted sectors. The chief aim of the research was to analyze the assorted factors that determine the glass ceiling consequence in organisation. This aim was fulfilled by the secondary informations. The factors found to be responsible for glass ceiling are the direction perceptual experience, occupation satisfaction, gender prejudice, development chance and the factors finding the calling promotion are the pleasant visual aspect, calling focused, the attitude towards organisations and the household support. Two different questionnaires were administered to roll up the information.
Both were scaled on a 5 point Likert graduated table. The first questionnaire was a 27 point questionnaire which was used to find if the glass ceiling existed in the organisations and the factors studied were managerial perceptual experience, Job satisfaction, development chance and gender prejudice. The combined agencies of the above mentioned factors were calculated and managerial perceptual experience and gender prejudice came to be the top two factors chiefly lending to the Glass ceiling ( table -1. ) It was found that managerial perceptual experience high spots that adult females are still seen as the weaker work force of the two genders and in most of the Indian organisations of the private sector the direction perceptual experience prevails that adult females are more suited for the occupations which require less skilled and more administrative undertakings. The gender prejudice still exists in organisations
The information was supported by informally questioning few adult females over the telephone and some through personal interview, that in footings of delegating specialized occupations work forces are ever preferred and are ever given more penchant over the adult females. The 2nd questionnaire was administered to analyse the responses on the factors that are helpful for the calling promotion of the adult females at workplace The questionnaire had the factors viz. pleasant visual aspect, attitude towards the organisation, calling focal point and household support and was a 5 point graduated table runing from Not helpful at all to Greatly Helpful.Each of the parametric quantity was studied and the consequences showed that the household support was found to be the most of import factor of calling promotion amongst all.
Then the attitude towards organisation and calling focal point were the other of import factors that were besides helpful in progressing the calling of adult females. employees. ( table-2 ) . The principle, where household support was found to be a determiner of calling promotion, lies in Indian scenario and the societal scenes that the Indians are born and brought up and where household civilization is taken to be a high determiner of the calling promotion in adult females These findings are supported by survey that states pull offing the demands of life outside of the workplace, is still perceived to be preponderantly adult females ‘s duty ( Morrison, White and Van Velsor, 1992 ) .Regression and Correlation were conducted for analysis and reading of relationship between the independent variable i.e. Glass Ceiling consequence and the dependant variable i.e. Career promotion of adult females which shows a relationship between these two variables ( table 3 ; A ; 5 ) .
So the surrogate hypothesis that there exists a important relationship between the glass ceiling and the calling promotion is accepted. But once more the informations based on personal interview shows that adult females do non desire to speak openly on this issue as non many adult females were ready to accept that there exists a construct of glass ceiling in their organisation. Womans are still non open about the being of glass ceiling around them, and most of them were loath to make full up the questionnaire.
The calling development variable was studied and it was highlighted that pleasant visual aspect reasonably effects the calling promotion of adult females because adult females holding endangering manner of working or demoing an attitude equal to work forces is non preferred to be working in the organisation and non baleful and non competitory manner of working adult females is preferred in most of the organisation. The overall analysis shows that with the presence of Glass Ceiling in any organisation the calling promotion of adult females is affected and the survey is supported by earlier surveies conducted in this country.