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When it can, the superconductor will push out any magnetic fields from the interior in a process called the Missioner’s effect. It happens when a sample is cooled below its superconducting transition temperature, where it then cancels out its magnetic flux. Even though scientists will claim otherwise, magnetism isn’t greatly understood. Because of electromagnetic, a perfect conductor won’t change the magnetic flux when it cruises through at zero resistance. However, when cooled to the superconductor state the magnetic flux is expelled. Now we have perfect diamagnetism – where the interior magnetic field nears zero.

At this point, if an external magnetic field is introduced, it will create an opposing magnetic field. This locks the two in place which is called Quantum Locking; A sample of yttrium barium copper oxide was cooled with liquid nitrogen to ring out its superconductive properties. The experiment shows Quantum Levitation of Superconductor when placed on a magnetic field. What’s unusual is that the sample can be angled, yet still held in place by the magnetic field. The superconductor can be set into motion to either hover above or below the magnetic sensors.

While it might seem like just another science fair exhibit, think of the applications. One can almost envision mass transit gliding along carrying passengers inside a high temperature superconductor sourced vehicle. Or a warehouse where tow motors has become obsolete. Permanent magnets eave been known to levitate. And when it comes to superconductors, electrons simply flow through in an orderly pattern without resistance. Then why not use the technology for Quantum levitated trains. What is Quantum Levitation? A thin superconductor layer (-?1 pm thick) is coated on a sapphire wafer.

Quantum physics tells us that the magnetic field penetrates into the superconductor in the form of discrete flux tubes. The superconductor strongly pins these tubes, causing it to float in midair. This effect is called =quantum levitation’. The Physics behind Quantum Levitation: We start with a single crystal sapphire wafer and coat it with a thin (-?1 pm thick) ceramic material called yttrium barium copper oxide (YBa2Cu307-x). The ceramic layer has no interesting magnetic or electrical properties at room temperature. However, when cooled below -ICC (-301 OF) the material becomes a superconductor.

It conducts electricity without resistance, with no energy loss. Superconductivity and magnetic field do not like each other. When possible, the superconductor will expel all the magnetic field from inside by developing circulating currents. This is called as the Missioner’s effect. In our case, since the superconductor is extremely thin, the magnetic field DOES penetrate. However, it does that in discrete quantities (this is quantum physics after all! ) called flux tubes. Inside each magnetic flux tube superconductivity is locally destroyed. The superconductor will try to keep the magnetic tubes pinned in weak areas (e. . Grain boundaries). Any spatial movement of the superconductor will cause the flux tubes to move. In order to prevent that the superconductor remains -?trapped in mid-air this phenomena is called Quantum Locking or Quantum trapping. Future of Quantum Levitation: In the future we will be able to replace magnetic levitated trains with the quantum levitation and we can also have Flying cars, fossil fuel requirement is eliminated creating an environment free of pollution we can design friction less bearings, friction less particle accelerators and so on. 2.

A superconductor is a material that can conduct electricity or transport electrons from one atom to another with no resistance. This means no heat, sound or any other form of energy would be released from the material when t has reached “critical temperature” (Etc), or the temperature at which the material becomes superconductive. Unfortunately, most materials must be in an extremely low energy state (very cold) in order to become superconductive. Research is underway to develop compounds that become superconductive at higher temperatures.

Currently, an excessive amount of energy must be used in the cooling process making superconductors inefficient and uneconomical. 2. 2 Types of Superconductors: Superconductors come in two different flavors: type and type II. Type I Superconductors: The Type 1 category of superconductors is mainly comprised of metals and metalloid that show some conductivity at room temperature. They require incredible cold to slow down molecular vibrations sufficiently to facilitate unimpeded electron flow in accordance with what is known as BCC theory.

BCC theory suggests that electrons team up in “Cooper pairs” in order to help each other overcome molecular obstacles – much like race cars on a track drafting each other in order to go faster. Scientists call this process phonon- mediated coupling because of the sound packets generated by the flexing of he crystal lattice. Type 1 superconductors – characterized as the “soft” us preproduction – were discovered first and require the coldest temperatures to become superconductive.

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